October 25 events in history

473 Emperor Leo I acclaims his grandson Leo II as Caesar of the Byzantine Empire
1147 Seljuk Turks completely annihilate German crusaders under Conrad III at the Battle of Dorylaeum
1154 Henry II becomes King of England
1415 The army of Henry V of England defeats the French at the Battle of Agincourt
1616 Dutch sea-captain Dirk Hartog makes second recorded landfall by a European on Australian soil, at the later-named Dirk Hartog Island off the West Australian coast
1747 British fleet under Admiral Sir Edward Hawke defeats the French at the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre
1760 George III becomes King of Great Britain
1812 War of 1812: The American frigate, USS United States, commanded by Stephen Decatur, captures the British frigate HMS Macedonian
1822 Greek War of Independence: The First Siege of Missolonghi begins
1828 St Katharine Docks open in London
1854 The Battle of Balaclava during the Crimean War (Charge of the Light Brigade)
1861 The Toronto Stock Exchange is created
1900 The United Kingdom annexes the Transvaal
1917 Traditionally understood date of the October Revolution, involving the capture of the Winter Palace, Petrograd, Russia. The date refers to the Julian Calendar date, and corresponds with November 7 in the Gregorian calendar
1920 After 74 days on hunger strike in Brixton Prison, England, the Sinn Féin Lord Mayor of Cork, Terence MacSwiney dies
1924 The Zinoviev letter, which Zinoviev himself denied writing, is published in the Daily Mail. The Labour party would later blame this letter for the Conservatives' landslide election win
1927 The Italian luxury liner SS Principessa Mafalda sinks off the coast of Brazil, killing 314
1938 The Archbishop of Dubuque, Francis J. L. Beckman, denounces swing music as "a degenerated musical system… turned loose to gnaw away at the moral fiber of young people", warning that it leads down a "primrose path to hell". His warning is widely ignored
1940 Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. is named the first African American general in the United States Army
1944 Heinrich Himmler orders a crackdown on the Edelweiss Pirates, a loosely organized youth culture in Nazi Germany that had assisted army deserters and others to hide from the Third Reich
1944 The USS Tang under Richard O'Kane (the top American submarine captain of World War II) is sunk by the ship's own malfunctioning torpedo
1944 The Romanian city of Carei is liberated by Romanian and Soviet forces from Nazi-Hungarian occupation
1944 World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf — the largest naval battle in history, takes place in and around the Philippines between the Imperial Japanese Navy and the U.S. Third and U.S. Seventh Fleets. Afterward is the first Kamikaze attack of the war
1945 The Republic of China takes over administration of Taiwan following Japan's surrender to the Allies
1962 Cuban missile crisis: Adlai Stevenson shows photos at a meeting of the United Nations Security Council proving that Soviet missiles are installed in Cuba
1962 Uganda joins the United Nations
1962 Nelson Mandela is sentenced to five years in prison
1971 The United Nations seats the People's Republic of China and expels the Republic of China (see political status of Taiwan and China and the United Nations)
1977 Digital Equipment Corporation releases OpenVMS V1.0
1980 Proceedings on the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction conclude at The Hague
1983 Operation Urgent Fury: The United States and its Caribbean allies invade Grenada, six days after Prime Minister Maurice Bishop and several of his supporters are executed in a coup d'état
1991 History of Slovenia: Three months after the end of the Ten-Day War, the last soldier of the Yugoslav People's Army leaves the territory of the Republic of Slovenia
1995 A commuter train slams into a school bus in Fox River Grove, Illinois, killing seven students
1997 After a brief civil war which has driven President Pascal Lissouba out of Brazzaville, Denis Sassou Nguesso proclaims himself the President of the Republic of the Congo
2004 Cuban President Fidel Castro announces that transactions using the American Dollar will be banned
2009 The October 2009 Baghdad bombings kills 155 and wounds at least 721