October 27 events in history

312 Constantine the Great is said to have received his famous Vision of the Cross
710 Saracen invasion of Sardinia
939 Æthelstan, the first King of England, died and was succeeded by his half-brother, Edmund I
1275 Traditional founding of the city of Amsterdam
1524 Italian Wars: The French troops lay siege to Pavia
1553 Condemned as a heretic, Michael Servetus is burned at the stake just outside Geneva
1644 Second Battle of Newbury in the English Civil War
1682 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is founded
1795 The United States and Spain sign the Treaty of Madrid, which establishes the boundaries between Spanish colonies and the U.S
1806 The French Army enters Berlin, following the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt
1810 United States annexes the former Spanish colony of West Florida
1827 Bellini's third opera, Il pirata, is premiered at Teatro alla Scala di Milano
1838 Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs issues the Extermination Order, which orders all Mormons to leave the state or be exterminated
1870 Marshal François Achille Bazaine surrenders to Prussian forces at the conclusion of the Siege of Metz along with 140,000 French soldiers in one of the biggest French defeats of the Franco-Prussian War
1904 The first underground New York City Subway line opens; the system becomes the biggest in United States, and one of the biggest in world
1907 Černová massacre: Fifteen people are killed in the Hungarian half of Austria-Hungary when a gunman opens fire on a crowd gathered at a church consecration. This would led to protests over the treatment of minorities in Austria-Hungary
1914 The British lose their first battleship of World War I: The British super-dreadnought battleship HMS Audacious (23,400 tons), is sunk off Tory Island, north-west of Ireland, by a minefield laid by the armed German merchant-cruiser Berlin.The loss was kept an official secret in Britain until November 14 1918. The sinking was witnessed and photographed by passengers on RMS Olympic sister ship of RMS Titanic
1916 Battle of Segale: Negus Mikael, marching on the Ethiopian capital in support of his son Emperor Iyasu V, is defeated by Fitawrari abte Giyorgis, securing the throne for Empress Zewditu I
1922 A referendum in Rhodesia rejects the country's annexation to the South African Union
1924 The Uzbek SSR is founded in the Soviet Union
1930 Ratifications exchanged in London for the first London Naval Treaty, signed in April modifying the 1925 Washington Naval Treaty and the arms limitation treaty's modified provisions, go into effect immediately, further limiting the expensive naval arms race among its five signatories
1936 Mrs Wallis Simpson files for divorce which would eventually allow her to marry King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, thus forcing his abdication from the throne
1944 World War II: German forces capture Banská Bystrica during Slovak National Uprising thus bringing it to an end
1948 Léopold Sédar Senghor founds the Senegalese Democratic Bloc
1953 British nuclear test Totem 2 is carried out at Emu Field, South Australia
1954 Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. becomes the first African-American general in the United States Air Force
1958 Iskander Mirza, the first President of Pakistan, is deposed in a bloodless coup d'état by General Ayub Khan, who had been appointed the enforcer of martial law by Mirza 20 days earlier
1961 NASA tests the first Saturn I rocket in Mission Saturn-Apollo 1
1961 Mauritania and Mongolia join the United Nations
1962 Major Rudolf Anderson of the United States Air Force becomes the only direct human casualty of the Cuban missile crisis when his U-2 reconnaissance airplane is shot down in Cuba by a Soviet-supplied SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile
1962 A plane carrying Enrico Mattei, post-war Italian administrator, crashes in mysterious circumstances
1964 Ronald Reagan delivers a speech on behalf of Republican candidate for president, Barry Goldwater. The speech launched his political career and came to be known as "A Time for Choosing"
1967 Catholic priest Philip Berrigan and others of the 'Baltimore Four' protest the Vietnam War by pouring blood on Selective Service records
1971 The Democratic Republic of the Congo is renamed Zaire
1973 A 1.4 kg chondrite-type meteorite strikes in Cañon City, Colorado
1979 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines gains its independence from the United Kingdom
1981 The Soviet submarine U 137 runs aground on the east coast of Sweden
1986 The British government suddenly deregulates financial markets, leading to a total restructuring of the way in which they operate in the country, in an event now referred to as the Big Bang
1988 Ronald Reagan decides to tear down the new U.S. Embassy in Moscow because of Soviet listening devices in the building structure
1991 Turkmenistan achieves independence from the Soviet Union
1992 United States Navy radioman Allen R. Schindler, Jr. is brutally murdered by shipmate Terry M. Helvey for being gay, precipitating first military, then national, debate about gays in the military that resulted in the United States "Don't ask, don't tell" military policy
1994 Gliese 229B is the first Substellar Mass Object to be unquestionably identified
1995 Latvia applies for membership in the European Union
1995 Former Prime Minister of Italy Bettino Craxi is convicted in absentia of corruption
1997 October 27, 1997 mini-crash: Stock markets around the world crash because of fears of a global economic meltdown. The Dow Jones Industrial Average plummets 554.26 points to 7,161.15
1999 Gunmen open fire in the Armenian Parliament, killing Prime Minister Vazgen Sargsyan, Parliament Chairman Karen Demirchyan, and six other members
2005 Riots begin in Paris after the deaths of two Muslim teenagers