October 28 events in history

97 Emperor Nerva is forced by the Praetorian Guard to adopt general Marcus Ulpius Trajanus as his heir and successor
306 Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor
312 Battle of the Milvian Bridge: Constantine I defeats Maxentius, becoming the sole Roman emperor in the West
456 The Visigoths brutally sack the Suebi's capital of Braga (Portugal), and the town's churches are burnt to the ground
969 Byzantine general Michael Bourtzes seizes part of Antioch's fortifications. The capture of the city from the Arabs is completed three days later, when reinforcements under the stratopedarches Peter arrive
1061 Empress Agnes, acting as regent for her son, brings about the election of bishop Cadalus, the antipope Honorius II
1344 The lower town of Smyrna is captured by Crusaders
1420 Beijing is officially designated the capital of the Ming dynasty on the same year that the Forbidden City, the seat of government, is completed
1492 Christopher Columbus discovered Cuba on his first voyage to the New World
1516 Battle of Yaunis Khan: Turkish forces under the Grand Vizier Sinan Pasha defeat the Mamluks near Gaza
1531 Battle of Amba Sel: Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi again defeats the army of Lebna Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia. The southern part of Ethiopia falls under Imam Ahmad's control
1538 The first university in the New World (in present-day Dominican Republic), the Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino, is established
1628 French Wars of Religion: The Siege of La Rochelle, which had lasted for 14 months, ends with the surrender of the Huguenots
1636 A vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony establishes the first college in what would become the United States, today known as Harvard University
1664 The Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot, later to be known as the Royal Marines, is established
1707 The 1707 Hōei earthquake causes more than 5,000 deaths in Honshu, Shikoku and Kyūshū, Japan
1775 American Revolutionary War: A British proclamation forbids residents from leaving Boston
1776 American Revolutionary War: Battle of White Plains: British Army forces arrive at White Plains, attack and capture Chatterton Hill from the Americans
1834 The Battle of Pinjarra is fought in the Swan River Colony in present-day Pinjarra, Western Australia. Between 14 and 40 Aborigines are killed by British colonists
1835 The United Tribes of New Zealand is established with the signature of the Declaration of Independence
1848 The first railroad in Spain between Barcelona and Mataró is opened
1864 American Civil War: The Battle of Fair Oaks & Darbytown Road (also known as the Second Battle of Fair Oaks) ends: Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant withdraw from Fair Oaks, Virginia, after failing to breach the Confederate defenses around Richmond, Virginia
1886 In New York Harbor, President Grover Cleveland dedicates the Statue of Liberty
1891 The Mino-Owari earthquake, the largest inland earthquake in Japan's history, strikes Gifu Prefecture
1893 Tchaikovsky's Symphony No. 6 in B Minor, Pathétique, receives its première performance in St. Petersburg, only nine days before the composer's death
1904 Panama and Uruguay establish diplomatic links
1915 Richard Strauss conducts the first performance of his tone poem Eine Alpensinfonie in Berlin
1918 World War I: Czechoslovakia is granted independence from Austria-Hungary marking the beginning of an independent Czechoslovak state, after 300 years
1918 A new Polish government in Western Galicia is established
1919 The U.S. Congress passes the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson's veto, paving the way for Prohibition to begin the following January
1922 March on Rome: Italian fascists led by Benito Mussolini march on Rome and take over the Italian government
1928 Declaration of the Youth Pledge in Indonesia, the first time Indonesia Raya, now the national anthem, was sung
1929 Black Monday, a day in the Wall Street Crash of 1929, which also saw major stock market upheaval
1940 World War II: Greece rejects Italy's ultimatum. So, Greco-Italian War began. Italy invades Greece through Albania, marking Greece's entry into World War II
1942 The Alaska Highway (Alcan Highway) is completed through Canada to Fairbanks, Alaska
1948 Swiss chemist Paul Müller is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT
1958 John XXIII is elected Pope
1962 End of Cuban missile crisis: Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev orders the removal of Soviet missiles from Cuba
1964 Vietnam War: U.S. officials deny any involvement in bombing North Vietnam
1965 Nostra Aetate, the "Declaration on the Relation of the Church with Non-Christian Religions" of the Second Vatican Council, is promulgated by Pope Paul VI; it absolves the Jews of responsibility for the death of Jesus, reversing Innocent III's 760 year-old declaration
1965 Construction on the St. Louis Arch is completed
1971 Britain launches the satellite Prospero into low Earth orbit atop a Black Arrow carrier rocket, the only British satellite to date launched by a British rocket
1982 The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party wins elections, leading to the first Socialist government in Spain after death of Franco. Felipe González becomes Prime Minister-elect
1990 The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic holds the first multiparty legislature election in the country's history
1995 Two hundred eighty-nine people are killed and 265 injured in Baku Metro fire, the deadliest subway disaster
1998 An Air China jetliner is hijacked by disgruntled pilot Yuan Bin and flown to Taiwan
2005 Plame affair: Lewis Libby, Vice-president Dick Cheney's chief of staff, is indicted in the Valerie Plame case. Libby resigns later that day
2006 The funeral service takes place for those executed at Bykivnia forest, outside Kiev, Ukraine. Eight hundred seventeen Ukrainian civilians (out of some 100,000) executed by Bolsheviks at Bykivnia in 1930s – early 1940s are reburied
2006 A group of ferocious activists of Bangladesh Awami League attacked one of their rival political party meeting in Dhaka with oars and sculls and killed their 14 activists
2007 Cristina Fernández de Kirchner becomes the first woman elected President of Argentina