Born on October 3

1292 Eleanor de Clare the wife of the powerful Hugh Despenser the younger. She was born in 1292 at Caerphilly in Glamorgan, Wales. She was the eldest daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford and 7th Earl of Gloucester, and Joan of Acre, daughter of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile; thus she was a granddaughter to Edward I of England. With her sisters, Elizabeth de Clare and Margaret de Clare, she inherited her father's estates after the death of her brother, Gilbert de Clare, 4th Earl of Gloucester at Bannockburn in 1314
1373 Jadwiga of Poland queen of Poland from 1384 to her death. She was a member of the Capetian House of Anjou, the daughter of king Louis I of Hungary and Elizabeth of Bosnia
1390 Humphrey of Lancaster 1st Duke of Gloucester "son, brother and uncle of kings", being the fourth and youngest son of King Henry IV of England by his first wife, Mary de Bohun, brother to King Henry V of England, and uncle to the latter's son, King Henry VI of England.
1458 Saint Casimir a crown prince of the Kingdom of Poland and of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania who became a patron saint of Lithuania, Poland, and the young. His feast day, the Saint Casimir's Day, is marked annually with Kaziuko mugė held on the Sunday nearest to March 4, the anniversary of his death, in Vilnius
1554 Fulke Greville 1st Baron Brooke an Elizabethan poet, dramatist, and statesman who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1581 and 1621, when he was raised to the peerage.
1609 John Clarke (Baptist minister) a medical doctor, Baptist minister, co-founder of the colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, author of its influential charter, and a leading advocate of religious freedom in the Americas.
1610 Gabriel Lalemant a Jesuit missionary and one of the eight Canadian Martyrs.
1613 Marion Delorme a French courtesan known for her relationships with the important men of her time.
1631 Sebastian Anton Scherer a German composer and organist of the Baroque era.
1634 Isabella d'Este Duchess of Parma Duchess of Parma, and second wife of Duke Ranuccio II Farnese. She was the paternal grandmother of Elisabetta Farnese
1646 Joseph Parrocel a French Baroque painter, best known for his paintings and drawings of battle scenes.
1648 Élisabeth Sophie Chéron remembered today primarily as a French painter, but she was acclaimed in her lifetime as a gifted poet, musician, artist, and academicienne.
1680 Johanna Elisabeth of Baden-Durlach a Duchess of Württemberg by marriage.
1705 Jacques-Joachim Trotti marquis de La Chétardie a French diplomat who engineered the coup d'etat that brought Elizaveta Petrovna to the Russian throne in 1741. In the course of his eventful career, La Chetardie was sent on diplomatic errands throughout Europe: in London , then in Holland and Prussia, in Russia twice, and finally in Turin in 1749 in the company of Jean-Louis Favier
1713 Antoine Dauvergne a French composer and violinist.
1716 Giovanni Battista Beccaria born at Mondovì, and entered the religious Order of the Pious Schools or Piarists, in 1732, where he studied, and afterward taught, grammar and rhetoric. At the same time, he applied himself with success to mathematics
1720 Johann Uz born at Ansbach.
1722 Johann Heinrich Tischbein one of the most respected European painters in the 18th century and an important member of the Tischbein dynasty of German painters, which spanned four generations.
1756 Carl Olof Cronstedt a Swedish naval commander responsible for the overwhelming Swedish victory at the Second Battle of Svensksund, one of the largest naval battles in history. He is often better remembered, however, as the commander of the fortress of Sveaborg during the Finnish War in 1808–09, which was fought between Sweden and Imperial Russia, and ended in Cronstedt surrendering the fortress
1762 Anton Bernolák a Slovak linguist and Catholic priest and the author of the first Slovak language standard.
1772 Claude-Étienne Michel second in command of the Chasseur Division of the Guard and commander of its Brigade of Middle Guard. He may be the officer who uttered the words often attributed to Pierre Cambronne "La Garde meurt et ne se rend pas" "The Guard dies, and does not surrender"
1782 Charles Jared Ingersoll an American lawyer and Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania
1784 Johann Karl Ehrenfried Kegel a German agronomist and explorer of the Kamchatka Peninsula. He died in Odessa in 1863
1786 Carl Almenräder a German performer, teacher and composer.
1789 Henry Pottinger an Anglo-Irish soldier and colonial administrator who became the first Governor of Hong Kong.
1790 John Ross (Cherokee chief) the Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation from 1828–1866, serving longer in this position than any other person. Described as the Moses of his people, Ross influenced the Indian nation through such tumultuous events as the relocation to Indian Territory and the American Civil War
1792 Francisco Morazán President of the Federal Republic of Central America from 1830 to 1839. Before he was president of Central America he was head of state of Honduras, He rose to prominence at the legendary Battle of La Trinidad on November 11, 1827. Since then, and until his execution in 1842, Morazán dominated the political and military scene of Central America
1797 Leopold II Grand Duke of Tuscany Grand Duke of Tuscany.
1800 David Nathaniel Friedrich Dietrich German botanist and gardener.
1800 George Bancroft an American historian and statesman who was prominent in promoting secondary education both in his home state and at the national level. During his tenure as U.S. Secretary of the Navy, he established the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845. He was a senior American diplomat in Europe. Among his best-known writings is the magisterial series, History of the United States, from the Discovery of the American Continent
1802 John Gorrie a physician, scientist, inventor, and humanitarian.
1804 Allan Kardec the pen name of the French educator, translator and author Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail. He is known today as the systematizer of Spiritism for which he laid the foundation with the five books of the Spiritist Codification. His books have sold millions of copies
1804 Townsend Harris a successful New York City merchant and minor politician, and the first United States Consul General to Japan. He negotiated the "Harris Treaty" between the US and Japan and is credited as the diplomat who first opened the Empire of Japan to foreign trade and culture in the Edo period
1806 Oliver Cowdery P. Cowdery was, with Joseph Smith, an important participant in the formative period of the Latter Day Saint movement between 1829 and 1836. He became one of the Three Witnesses of the Book of Mormon's golden plates, one of the first Latter Day Saint apostles, and the Second Elder of the church
1813 Moritz Wagner a German explorer, collector, geographer and natural historian. Wagner devoted three years to the exploration of Algiers: it was here that he made important observations in natural history, which he later supplemented and developed: that geographical isolation could play a key role in speciation
1817 Johannes Scherr a German-born novelist and literary critic most of whose working life was spent in Switzerland.
1824 Harry von Arnim a German diplomat.
1824 Ivan Savvich Nikitin a Russian poet.
1828 Woldemar Bargiel a German composer.
1829 Constant Mayer a French painter who emigrated to the United States.
1830 George Brayton born in Rhode Island, son of William and Minerva Brayton. He was an American mechanical engineer who lived with his family in Boston and who is noted for introducing the constant pressure engine that is the basis for the gas turbine, and which is now referred to as the Brayton cycle
1830 Albert Günther a German-born British zoologist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist. Günther is currently ranked the second-most productive reptile taxonomist with more than 340 reptile species described
1834 Vilém Blodek a Czech composer, flautist, and pianist.
1837 Nicolás Avellaneda an Argentine politician and journalist, and president of Argentina from 1874 to 1880. Avellaneda's main projects while in office were banking and education reform, leading to Argentina's economic growth. The most important events of his government were the Conquest of the Desert and the transformation of the City of Buenos Aires into a federal district
1843 Luke Fildes an English painter and illustrator born at Liverpool and trained in the South Kensington and Royal Academy schools.
1846 James Jackson Putnam a United States neurologist.
1846 Platon Poretsky a noted Russian astronomer, mathematician, and logician.
1848 Henry Lerolle a French painter, art collector and patron, born in Paris. He studied at Académie Suisse and in the studio of Louis Lamothe
1852 Kyriak Kostandi a prominent Ukrainian painter and an art scholar. A member of the Russian realist artistic movement Peredvizhniki he also authored several Impressionist paintings
1854 Hermann Struve a Russian astronomer. In Russian, his name is sometimes given as German Ottovich Struve or German Ottonovich Struve