Died on October 3

818 Ermengarde of Hesbaye Queen of the Franks and Holy Roman Empress as the wife of Emperor Louis She was Frankish, the daughter of Ingeram, count of Hesbaye, and Hedwig of Bavaria.
900 Muhammad ibn Zayd an Alid who succeeded his brother, Hasan , as ruler of the Zaydid dynasty of Tabaristan in 884. Little is known of his early life, before coming to Tabaristan after Hasan established Zaydid rule there in 864. He served his brother as a general and governor, and continued his policies after his accession. His reign was troubled by rebellions and wars, most notably by the invasion of Rafi' ibn Harthama in 889–892, which occupied most of his domains. After Rafi' fell out of favour with the Abbasids, Muhammad recovered his position and secured the allegiance of Rafi', but did not particularly support him against the Saffarids. In 900, following the Saffarids' defeat by the Samanids, he tried to invade Khurasan, but was defeated and died of his wounds, whereupon Tabaristan fell to the Samanids
1078 Boris Vyacheslavich Prince of Chernigov for eight days in 1077. He was the son of Vyacheslav Yaroslavich, Prince of Smolensk. Following his father's death in 1057, the child Boris was debarred from his inheritance. He died fighting against his uncles—Vsevolod Yaroslavich, Prince of Chernigov and Izyaslav Yaroslavich, Grand Prince of Kiev—on 3 October 1078
1078 Iziaslav I of Kiev Yaroslavich Kniaz' of Turov, Veliki Kniaz of Kiev.
1226 Francis of Assisi an Italian Catholic friar and preacher. He founded the men's Order of Friars Minor, the women’s Order of Clare, and the Third Order of Saint Francis for men and women not able to live the lives of itinerant preachers, followed by the early members of the Order of Friars Minor, or the monastic lives of the Poor Clares. Though he was never ordained to the Catholic priesthood, Francis is one of the most venerated religious figures in history
1283 Dafydd ap Gruffydd Prince of Wales from 11 December 1282 until his execution on 3 October 1283 by King Edward I of England. He was the last independent ruler of Wales
1369 Margaret Countess of Tyrol the last Countess of Tyrol from the Meinhardiner dynasty of Gorizia. Upon her death, Tyrol became united with the hereditary lands of the House of Habsburg
1513 Anton Koberger the German goldsmith, printer and publisher who printed and published the Nuremberg Chronicle, a landmark of incunabula, and was a successful bookseller of works from other printers. He established in 1470 the first printing house in Nuremberg
1559 Ercole II d'Este Duke of Ferrara Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio from 1534 to 1559. He was the eldest son of Alfonso I d'Este and Lucrezia Borgia
1568 Elisabeth of Valois a Spanish queen consort. The eldest daughter of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici, she married Philip II of Spain as his third wife
1570 Hieronymus Cock a Flemish painter and etcher as well as a publisher and distributor of prints. Cock was the most important print publisher of his time in northern Europe and played a key role in the transformation of printmaking from an activity of individual artists and craftsmen into an industry based on division of labour
1596 Florent Chrestien a French satirist and Latin poet.
1611 Charles Duke of Mayenne a French nobleman of the house of Guise and a military leader of the Catholic League, which he headed during the French Wars of Religion, following the assassination of his brothers at Blois in 1588. In 1596, when he made peace with Henri of Navarre, the wars were essentially at an end. He was the second son of Francis of Lorraine, Duke of Guise and Anna d'Este, the daughter of Ercole d'Este II, Duke of Ferrara and Renée of France
1611 Margaret of Austria Queen of Spain Queen consort of Spain and Portugal by her marriage to King Philip III.
1629 Giorgi Saakadze a Georgian politician and military commander who played an important but contradictory role in the politics of the early 17th-century Georgia. He was also known as Grand Mouravi in Georgia, Mūrāv-Beg in Persia and Maghraw-Bek in the Ottoman Empire for having served as a mouravi of Tbilisi
1649 Giovanni Diodati a Swiss-born Italian Calvinist theologian and translator. He was the first translator of the Bible into Italian from Hebrew and Greek sources
1653 Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn a Dutch scholar. Born in Bergen op Zoom, he was professor at the University of Leiden. He discovered the similarity among Indo-European languages, and supposed the existence of a primitive common language which he called 'Scythian'. He included in his hypothesis Greek, Latin, Persian, Turkish, and Germanic languages, later adding Slavic, Celtic and Baltic languages. He excluded such languages as Hebrew from his hypothesis
1656 Myles Standish an English military officer hired by the Pilgrims as military advisor for Plymouth Colony. One of the Mayflower passengers, Standish played a leading role in the administration and defense of Plymouth Colony from its inception. On February 17, 1621, the Plymouth Colony militia elected him as its first commander and continued to re-elect him to that position for the remainder of his life. Standish served as an agent of Plymouth Colony in England, as assistant governor, and as treasurer of Plymouth Colony. He was also one of the first settlers and founders of the town of Duxbury, Massachusetts
1657 Bartholomeus Breenbergh a Dutch Golden Age painter of Italian and Italianate landscapes, in Rome and Amsterdam.
1685 Juan Carreño de Miranda a Spanish painter of the Baroque period.
1690 Robert Barclay a Scottish Quaker, one of the most eminent writers belonging to the Religious Society of Friends and a member of the Clan Barclay. He was also governor of the East Jersey colony in North America through most of the 1680s, although he himself never resided in the colony
1701 Joseph Williamson (politician) an English civil servant, diplomat and politician who sat in the House of Commons of England variously between 1665 and 1701 and in the Irish House of Commons between 1692 and 1699. He was Secretary of State for the Northern Department 1674-9
1703 Alessandro Melani an Italian composer and the brother of composer Jacopo Melani, and castrato singer Atto Melani. Along with Bernardo Pasquini and Alessandro Scarlatti, he was one of the leading composers active in Rome during the 17th century. He is also ranked among the second school of Roman opera composers which began with his brother's 1668 opera Il Girello. He is chiefly remembered today for his large output of liturgical music that he wrote while serving in various musical posts in Rome. Of particular interest is the large number of polychoral motets that he produced and his eight ascribed oratorios. Three published collections of his liturgical music survive today along with numerous solitary motets from other published volumes. A number of original manuscripts also survive
1750 Georg Matthias Monn an Austrian composer, organist and music teacher whose works were fashioned in the transition from the Baroque to Classical period in music.
1801 Philippe Henri marquis de Ségur a marshal of France.
1826 Jens Baggesen a Danish poet.
1830 Robert Lefèvre a French painter of portraits, history paintings and religious paintings. He was heavily influenced by Jacques-Louis David and his style s reminiscent of the antique
1833 François marquis de Chasseloup-Laubat born at Saint-Sernin , of a noble family, and entered the French engineers in 1774.
1838 Black Hawk (Sauk leader) now the Midwest of the United States. Although he had inherited an important historic medicine bundle from his father, he was not a hereditary civil chief. Black Hawk earned his status as a war chief or captain by his actions: leading raiding and war parties as a young man, and a band of Sauk warriors during the Black Hawk War of 1832
1839 Moses Sofer one of the leading Orthodox rabbis of European Jewry in the first half of the nineteenth century.
1852 Tirimüjgan Sultan the daughter of Bekhan Bey, who belonged to the Shapsugs Tribe of Circassia, and his wife Almaş Hanım; she was the wife of Sultan Abdülmecid I' and the mother of Sultan Abdul Hamid II.
1853 George Onslow (composer) a French composer of English descent. His wealth, position and personal tastes allowed him to pursue a path unfamiliar to most of his French contemporaries, more similar to that of his contemporary German romantic composers; his music also had a strong following in Germany and in England. His principal output was chamber music but he also wrote four symphonies and four operas. Esteemed by many of the critics of his time, his reputation declined swiftly after his death and has only been revived in recent years
1855 Robert Adair (politician) a distinguished English diplomat, and frequently employed on the most important diplomatic missions.
1860 Alfred Edward Chalon a Swiss portrait painter. He lived in London where he was noticed by Queen Victoria
1860 Rembrandt Peale an American artist and museum keeper. A prolific portrait painter, he was especially acclaimed for his likenesses of presidents George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. Peale's style was influenced by French Neoclassicism after a stay in Paris in his early thirties
1862 François Sudre (1787–1862) a violinist, composer and music teacher who invented a musical language called la Langue musicale universelle or Solrésol.
1867 Elias Howe an American inventor and sewing machine pioneer.
1867 Bernard Seurre a French sculptor. His younger brother Charles Émile Seurre was also a sculptor
1870 Richard Barter an Irish physician and proponent of hydropathy. He collaborated with David Urquhart on the introduction of Turkish baths into the United Kingdom. Barter founded St Ann's Hydro, Ireland's first hydropathic establishment at St Ann's Hill, located near Cork
1873 Kintpuash a chief of the Native American Modoc tribe of California and Oregon, and was their leader during the Modoc War.
1877 James Roosevelt Bayley an American prelate of the Catholic Church. He served as the first Bishop of Newark and the eighth Archbishop of Baltimore
1881 Orson Pratt a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and an original member of the Quorum of Twelve Apostles. He was born in Hartford, New York, the son of Jared and Charity Dickenson Pratt
1884 Hans Makart a 19th-century Austrian academic history painter, designer, and decorator; most well known for his influence on Gustav Klimt and other Austrian artists, but in his own era considered an important artist himself and a celebrity figure in the high culture of Vienna, attended with almost cult-like adulation.
1889 Karel Miry a Belgian composer.
1890 Joseph Hergenröther a German Church historian and canonist, and the first Cardinal-Prefect of the Vatican Archives.
1891 Édouard Lucas a French mathematician. Lucas is known for his study of the Fibonacci sequence. The related Lucas sequences and Lucas numbers are named after him
1892 Paul Peel a Canadian academic painter. Having won a medal at the 1890 Paris Salon, he became one of the first Canadian artists to receive international recognition in his lifetime
1896 William Morris an English textile designer, poet, novelist, translator, and socialist activist. Associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement, he was a major contributor to the revival of traditional British textile arts and methods of production. His literary contributions helped to establish the modern fantasy genre, while he played a significant role in propagating the early socialist movement in Britain
1902 Carl August Walbrodt a German chess master.
1903 Benedetto Junck an Italian composer, the son of an Italian woman and an Alsatian father. Born in Turin, he was trained there for a career in business, and began work in that line in Paris before turning to music. He studied with Alberto Mazzucato and Antonio Bazzini. Much of his output was chamber music; he also composed a few songs and romanze