Born on October 30

39 Julia the Elder the daughter and only biological child of Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire. Augustus subsequently adopted several male members of his close family as sons. Julia resulted from Augustus' second marriage with Scribonia, her birth occurring on the same day as Scribonia's divorce from Augustus, who wished to marry Livia Drusilla
1137 Sergius VII of Naples the thirty-ninth and last duke of Naples. He succeeded his father John VI on the Neapolitan throne in 1120 or 1123 at a time when Roger II of Sicily was rising rapidly in power. When Roger succeeded as duke of Apulia in 1127 and was crowned king in 1130, the fate of Naples hinged on Sergius' relations with the Sicilian court
1218 Emperor Chūkyō the 85th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned only months in 1221, and he was not officially listed amongst the emperors until 1870 because of doubts caused by the length of his reign. The Imperial Household Agency recognizes Kujō no misasagi near Tōfuku-ji in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto as his tomb
1327 Andrew Duke of Calabria the first husband of Joanna I of Naples, son of Charles I of Hungary and brother of Louis I of Hungary.
1447 Lucas Watzenrode Prince-Bishop of Warmia and patron to his nephew, astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.
1492 Anne d'Alençon a French noblewoman and a Marquise of Montferrat as the wife of William IX, Marquis of Montferrat. She acted as Regent of the Marquisate of Montferrat for her son, Boniface from 1518 to his death in 1530
1513 Jacques Amyot born of poor parents, at Melun.
1532 Yuri of Uglich Prince of Uglich, and the second son of Vasily III of Russia and Elena Glinskaya, as well as being the younger brother of Ivan the Terrible. He was born deaf mute, and was thus never considered to be a candidate as heir to the Russian throne
1558 Jacques-Nompar de Caumont duc de La Force a marshal of France and peer of France. He was the son of a Huguenot, Francois de Caumont, lord of Castelnau, and Philippe de Beaupoil. He survived the Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572, but his father and older brother Armand were killed
1580 Armand-Nompar de Caumont duc de La Force a Marshal of France and peer of France. He was the son of another Marshal of France, Jacques-Nompar de Caumont, duc de La Force and Charlotte de Gontaut, daughter of Marshal Armand de Gontaut, baron de Biron. Like his father, Armand-Nompar was a Protestant
1580 Dirk Hartog a 17th-century Dutch sailor and explorer. Dirk Hartog's expedition was the second European group to land on Australian soil, He was the first to leave behind an artifact to record his visit, the Hartog plate. His name is sometimes alternatively spelled Dirck Hartog or Dierick Hartochsz. Ernest Giles referred to him as Theodoric Hertoge. Born into a seafaring family, at the age of 30 he received his first ship's command, and spent several years engaged in successful trading ventures in the Baltic and Mediterranean seas
1607 François de Beauvilliers 1st duc de Saint-Aignan a French military leader, administrator and man of letters. He was peer of France and a member of the Académie française
1624 Paul Pellisson a French author.
1631 Pierre Beauchamp a French choreographer, dancer and composer, and the probable inventor of Beauchamp-Feuillet notation.
1668 Sophia Charlotte of Hanover the first Queen consort in Prussia as wife of King Frederick She was the only daughter of Elector Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg and his wife Sophia of the Palatinate. Her eldest brother George Louis succeeded to the British throne in 1714 as King George I
1692 Unico Wilhelm van Wassenaer a Dutch nobleman who was a diplomat, composer, and administrator. He reorganized the Bailiwick of Utrecht of the Teutonic Order. His most important surviving compositions are the Concerti Armonici, which until 1980 had been misattributed to the Italian composer Giovanni Battista Pergolesi and to Carlo Ricciotti
1698 Paul Troger an Austrian painter, draughtsman and printmaker of the late Baroque period. Troger's illusionistic ceiling paintings in fresco are notable for their dramatic vitality of movement and their palette of light colors
1712 Christian Wilhelm Ernst Dietrich a German painter and art administrator. In his own works, he was adept at imitating many earlier artists, but never developed a style of his own
1728 Marcin Odlanicki Poczobutt a Polish–Lithuanian Jesuit astronomer and mathematician. He was professor of Vilnius University for over 50 years, serving as its rector from 1780 to 1799. The Poczobutt crater on the Moon is named after him
1735 John Adams the second president of the United States , having earlier served as the first vice president of the United States. An American Founding Father, Adams was a statesman, diplomat, and a leading advocate of American independence from Great Britain. Well educated, he was an Enlightenment political theorist who promoted republicanism, as well as a strong central government, and wrote prolifically about his often seminal ideas—both in published works and in letters to his wife and key adviser Abigail Adams. Adams was opposed to slavery, and never owned a slave. After the Boston Massacre, with anti-British feelings in Boston at a boiling point, he provided a principled, controversial, and successful legal defense of the accused British soldiers, because he believed in the right to counsel and the "protect of innocence"
1741 Angelica Kauffman a Swiss-born Austrian Neoclassical painter who had a successful career in London and Rome. Though born as "Kauffmann", Kauffman is the preferred spelling of her name in English; it is the form she herself used most in signing her correspondence, documents and paintings
1748 Martha Jefferson the wife of Thomas Jefferson, who was the third President of the United States. She was a widow at her second marriage, as her first husband had died young. The Jeffersons had six children together, but only two daughters survived to adulthood, and only one past the age of 25. Weakened by childbirth, Martha Jefferson died several months after the birth of her last child
1751 Richard Brinsley Sheridan an Irish playwright and poet and long-term owner of the London Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. He is known for his plays such as The Rivals, The School for Scandal and A Trip to Scarborough. For thirty-two years he was also a Whig Member of the British House of Commons for Stafford , Westminster and Ilchester. He was buried at Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey
1754 Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai a French politician and lawyer.
1758 Theodor von Schubert a German astronomer and geographer. Born in Helmstedt, his father, Johann Ernst Schubert, was a professor of theology and abbot of Michaelstein Abbey. Theodor likewise studied theology, but didn't like He traveled abroad, first to Sweden in 1779. He then went to Bartelshagen, where he became the tutor of the children of Major von Cronhelm. Since the major was fond of mathematics and astronomy, Theodor had to study these himself to be able to teach those subjects. He then married the daughter of the major, Luise Friederike von Cronhelm. Afterwards, he traveled to Tallinn in Estonia, again as a house teacher. He moved on to Haapsalu, teaching mathematics to young noblemen as a preparation for a life as an officer. In 1785 he became an assistant of the Russian Academy of Sciences as a geographer, and by June 1789 he was a full member. In 1803, he became head of the astronomical observatory of the Academy. In 1805, he was a member of the failed Russian expedition to China, together with his son. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1812
1762 Valentin Rose (pharmacologist) a German pharmacologist from Berlin, Margraviate of Brandenburg. Son of Valentin Rose the Elder
1762 André Chénier a French poet of Greek origin, associated with the events of the French Revolution of which he was a victim. His sensual, emotive poetry marks him as one of the precursors of the Romantic movement. His career was brought to an abrupt end when he was guillotined for alleged "crimes against the state", near the end of the Reign of Terror. Chénier's life has been the subject of Umberto Giordano's opera Andrea Chénier and other works of art
1763 Heinrich Cotta a German silviculturist who was a native of Kleine Zillbach, near Wasungen, Thuringia. He was founder of the Royal Saxon Academy of Forestry, in Tharandt, and is known as a pioneer of scientific forestry. He was the father of geologist Bernhard von Cotta
1771 Pierre-Hubert Nysten a Belgian-French physiologist and pediatrician who was a native of Liège. He studied medicine in Paris, and subsequently became a professor at the École de Médecine in Paris
1775 Catterino Cavos an Italian composer, organist and conductor settled in Russia. He played an important role in the history of Russian opera and was the father of Alberto Cavos
1776 George M. Bibb an American politician.
1782 Lorenzo Maria of Saint Francis Xavier Blessed Lorenzo Maria of Saint Francis Xavier, , a member of the Passionist Congregation, born on October 30, 1782 in Rome, Italy; died June 12, 1856 at Viterbo. Beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1999
1785 Hermann Fürst von Pückler-Muskau a German nobleman, who was an excellent artist in landscape gardening and wrote widely appreciated books, mostly about his travels in Europe and Northern Africa, published under the pen name of "Semilasso".
1786 Philippe-Joseph Aubert de Gaspé a French Canadian writer and seigneur.
1789 Princess Charlotte of Denmark born in Christiansborg Palace to Hereditary Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway and Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
1789 Elena Asachi a Romanian pianist, singer and composer of Austrian birth. She was the daughter of Austrian composer Anton Teyber and niece of concertmaster Franz Teyber
1790 Karol Lipiński a Polish music composer and virtuoso violinist active during the partitions of Poland. The Karol Lipiński University of Music in Wrocław, Poland is named after him
1794 Prince Frederick of Prussia (1794–1863) a Prussian prince, general of the royal cavalry, and division commander.
1797 Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg the wife of Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen. Her husband was a notable general of the Napoleonic Wars and victor of the Battle of Aspern-Essling against Napoleon I of France
1799 Ignace Bourget a French-Canadian Roman Catholic priest who held the title of Bishop of Montreal from 1840 to 1876. Born in Lévis, Quebec in 1799, Bourget entered the clergy at an early age, undertook several courses of religious study, and in 1837 was named co-adjutor bishop of the newly created bishopric of Montreal. Following the death of Jean-Jacques Lartigue in 1840, Bourget became Bishop of Montreal
1799 Emil Bærentzen a Danish portrait painter and lithographer, active during the Golden Age of Danish Painting.
1803 Christian Friedrich Heinrich Wimmer a German botanist and educator who was a native of Breslau.
1806 Stepan Shevyryov a conservative Russian literary historian and poet, a virulent critic of "the rotting West", and leading representative of the Official Nationality theory.
1807 James S. Wadsworth a philanthropist, politician, and a Union general in the American Civil War. He was killed in battle during the Battle of the Wilderness of 1864
1807 Johann Heinrich Kaltenbach a German naturalist and entomologist mainly interested in pest species. He was a teacher in Aachen
1813 Johann Felsko an architect, urban planner and the chief architect of Riga for 35 years in the period 1844—79. The most significant accomplishment of his creative work is the development of the center of Riga
1825 Henri Eugène Lucien Gaëtan Coemans a Belgian Catholic priest and botanist.
1829 Suzanne Manet a Dutch-born pianist and the wife of the painter Édouard Manet, for whom she frequently modeled.
1829 Roscoe Conkling a politician from New York who served both as a member of the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. He was the leader of the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party, the first Republican senator from New York to be elected for three terms, and the last person to refuse a U.S. Supreme Court appointment after he had already been confirmed by the U.S. Senate. While in the House, Congressman Conkling served as body guard for Representative Thaddeus Stevens, a sharp-tongued anti slavery Congressman, and fully supported the Republican War effort. Conkling, who was temperate and detested tobacco, was known for being a body builder through regularly exercising and boxing. Conkling was elected to the Senate in 1867 as a leading Radical, who supported the rights of African Americans during Reconstruction
1830 John S. Bowen a career United States Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. He fought at the battles of Shiloh, Corinth, and the Vicksburg Campaign. He is often said to have died just as his abilities were gaining attention