Born on October 5

823 Boniface II Margrave of Tuscany the count and duke of Lucca and first margrave of Tuscany from about 828. He succeeded his father Boniface I in Lucca — in what was an early example of hereditary succession — and extended his power over the region. During his tenure, the bishops of Lucca gradually lost control of the municipal government, which fell to the counts
954 Malcolm II of Scotland King of the Scots from 1005 until his death. He was a son of Cináed mac Maíl Coluim; the Prophecy of Berchán says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Máel Coluim Forranach, "the destroyer"
1331 Edmund 2nd Earl of Kent a member of the English royal family.
1338 Alexios III of Trebizond Megas Komnenos or Alexius III , Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. He is perhaps the best-documented ruler of that country, and his reign is distinguished by a number of religious grants and literary creations
1377 Louis II of Naples King of Naples from 1389 until 1399 and Duke of Anjou from 1384 until 1417. He was a member of the House of Valois-Anjou
1409 Charles VIII of Sweden king of Sweden and king of Norway.
1520 Alessandro Farnese (cardinal) the grandson of Pope Paul III , and the son of Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma, who was murdered in 1547. He should not be confused with his nephew Alessandro Farnese, Governor of the Spanish Netherlands, grandson of Emperor Charles V and great-grandson of Pope Paul III
1524 Rani Durgavati born in the family of famous Rajput Chandel Emperor Keerat Rai. She was born at the fort of Kalanjar. Chandel Dynasty is famous in the Indian history for the defense of king Vidyadhar who repulsed the attacks of Mahmud Ghaznavi. Her love for sculptures is shown in the world famed temples of Khajuraho and Kalanjar fort. Rani Durgavati maravi's achievements further enhanced the glory of her ancestral tradition of courage and patronage of arts
1557 Antoine Favre a Savoisian nobleman and jurist.
1576 Roger Manners 5th Earl of Rutland the eldest surviving son of John Manners, 4th Earl of Rutland and his wife, Elizabeth nee Charleton. He travelled across Europe, took part in military campaigns led by Essex, and was a participant of Essex's rebellion against Queen Elizabeth He was favoured by James I, and honoured by his contemporaries as a man of great intelligence and talent. He enjoyed the friendship of some of the most prominent writers and artists of the Elizabethan-Jacobean age. In 1603 he led an Embassy to Denmark, homeland of James' Queen Anne of Denmark
1609 Paul Fleming (poet) a German physician and poet.
1640 Françoise-Athénaïs marquise de Montespan the most celebrated maîtresse en titre of King Louis XIV of France, by whom she had seven children.
1640 Isaiah Kopinsky a Ukrainian Orthodox metropolitan.
1658 Mary of Modena Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland as the second wife of James II and VII. A devout Catholic, Mary married the widowed James, who was the younger brother and heir presumptive of Charles II,. She was uninterested in politics and devoted to James and their children, two of whom survived to adulthood: the Jacobite claimant to the thrones, James Francis Edward, , and Louisa Maria Teresa
1677 Pietro Grimani a Venetian statesman who served as the 115th Doge of Venice from June 30, 1741 until his death. Grimani was a cultured and learned man, who wrote poetry and counted among his acquaintances Isaac Newton, who he had met while serving as a diplomat in England. He was succeeded as Doge by Francesco Loredan
1693 Johann Christian Buxbaum a German physician, botanist and traveller.
1695 John Glas a Scottish clergyman who started the Glasite church movement.
1702 Prince Joseph of Saxe-Hildburghausen an Austrian general and field marshal. He is best known for commanding the Franco-Austrian forces at the Battle of Rossbach
1703 Jonathan Edwards (theologian) a Christian preacher, philosopher, and theologian. Edwards "is widely acknowledged to be America's most important and original philosophical theologian," and one of America's greatest intellectuals. Edwards's theological work is broad in scope, but he was rooted in Reformed theology, the metaphysics of theological determinism, and the Puritan heritage. Recent studies have emphasized how thoroughly Edwards grounded his life's work on conceptions of beauty, harmony, and ethical fittingness, and how central The Enlightenment was to his mindset. Edwards played a critical role in shaping the First Great Awakening, and oversaw some of the first revivals in 1733–35 at his church in Northampton, Massachusetts
1712 Francesco Guardi a Venetian painter of veduta, a member of the Venetian School. He is considered to be among the last practitioners, along with his brothers, of the classic Venetian school of painting
1713 Denis Diderot a French philosopher, art critic and writer. He was a prominent figure during the Enlightenment and is best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert
1715 Victor de Riqueti marquis de Mirabeau a French economist of the Physiocratic school. He was the father of great Honoré, Comte de Mirabeau and is, in distinction, often referred to as the elder Mirabeau
1716 Alexei Senyavin an admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy, son of Naum Senyavin.
1717 Marie Anne de Mailly the youngest of the five famous de Nesle sisters, four of whom would become the mistress of King Louis XV of France.
1728 Chevalier d'Eon a French diplomat, spy and soldier who fought in the Seven Years War. D'Éon had androgynous physical characteristics and natural abilities as a mimic, good features for a spy. D'Éon appeared publicly as a man and pursued masculine occupations for 49 years, although during that time d'Éon successfully infiltrated the court of Empress Elizabeth of Russia by presenting as a woman. For 33 years, from 1777, d'Éon dressed as a woman, claiming to be assigned female at birth. Doctors who examined the body after d'Éon's death discovered that d'Éon would have actually been assigned male at birth
1737 Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov a Russian soldier and statesman, who rose to prominence during the reign of Catherine the Great.
1743 Giuseppe Gazzaniga a member of the Neapolitan school of opera composers. He composed fifty-one operas and is considered to be one of the last Italian opera buffa composers
1751 John Shore 1st Baron Teignmouth a British official of the East India Company who served as Governor-General of India from 1793 to 1797. In 1798 he was created Baron Teignmouth in the Peerage of Ireland
1758 August Lafontaine a German novelist.
1777 Guillaume Dupuytren a French anatomist and military surgeon. Although he gained much esteem for treating Napoleon Bonaparte's hemorrhoids, he is best known today for Dupuytren's contracture which is named after him and which he described in 1831
1778 Jacques Joseph Champollion-Figeac a French archaeologist, elder brother of Jean-François Champollion.
1778 Ernst Ludwig von Aster Prussian, Saxon and Russian general. He took part in fortifying several fortresses, including in Cologne, Poznań and Königsberg. In his honor, in the Poznań Fortress and Koblenz Fortress have been given for forts names from surname Aster
1781 Bernard Bolzano a Bohemian mathematician, logician, philosopher, theologian and Catholic priest of Italian extraction, also known for his antimilitarist views.
1792 Joseph Crosfield now in the ceremonial county of Cheshire. This business was to become the firm of Joseph Crosfield and Sons
1795 Karl Ludwig Sand a German university student and member of a liberal Burschenschaft. He was executed in 1820 for the murder of the conservative dramatist August von Kotzebue the previous year in Mannheim. As a result of his execution, Sand became a martyr in the eyes of many German nationalists seeking the creation of a united German national state
1795 Alexander Keith (Canadian politician) a Scottish born Canadian politician, Freemason and brewer. He was mayor of the city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, a Conservative member of the provincial legislature, and the founder of the Alexander Keith's Nova Scotia Brewery
1796 Israel Friedman of Ruzhyn a Hasidic rebbe in 19th-century Ukraine and Austria. Known as Der Heiliger Ruzhiner , he conducted his court with regal pomp and splendor. Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, who was said to be jealous of the Rebbe's wealth and influence, had the Rebbe imprisoned for nearly two years on an unsubstantiated murder charge. After his release, the Rebbe fled to Austria, where he re-established his court in Sadigura, Bukovina , attracted thousands of Hasidim, provided for the Hasidic community in Israel, and inaugurated the construction of the Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue in the Old City of Jerusalem
1808 Wilhelm Weitling an important 19th-century European radical.
1815 Georg Theodor Chiewitz a Swedish architect and engineer. Due to economical problems he moved to Finland in 1851, where Chiewitz made his most remarkable career
1816 Ursula Frayne Clara Frayne, was an Irish nun who became a Mother Superior in the religious order of Sisters of Mercy and spent her life in missionary work, initially in Canada but largely in Australia developing schools and academies.
1820 David Wilber a United States Representative from New York and father of congressman David Wilber.
1821 Rudolf Haym a German philosopher.
1822 Heinrich Ehrlich a pianist, composer and writer on music. As a composer, he came forward with a Piano Concerto and Piano Variations on an Original Theme, being one of the first composers to collect Romanian folk melodies
1823 Ramalinga Swamigal commonly known in India and across the world as Vallalar. He was one of the most famous Tamil Saints and also one of the greatest Tamil poets of the 19th century and belongs to a line of Tamil saints known as "gnana siddhars". The Samarasa Suddha Sanmarga Sathiya Sangam was spread and passed on by him not only in theory but mainly in practice by his own way of living which was itself inspiration for his followers. Through the notion of Suddha Sanmarga Sangam, the saint endeavored to eliminate the caste system. According to Suddha Sanmarga, the prime aspects of human life should be love connected with charity and divine practice leading to achievement of pure knowledge
1824 Henry Chadwick (writer) an English-born American sportswriter, baseball statistician and historian, often called the "father of baseball" for his early reporting on and contributions to the development of the game. He edited the first baseball guide that was sold to the public. He is credited with creating box scores, as well as creating the abbreviation "K" that designates a strikeout. He is said to have created the statistics of batting average and earned run average. He was posthumously inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame
1825 John Xantus a Hungarian exile and zoologist. Xantus was born Xántus János, in Csokonya, Somogy, Hungary
1829 Ludwig Knaus a German genre painter of the younger Düsseldorf school of painting.
1829 Chester A. Arthur the 21st President of the United States ; he succeeded James Garfield upon the latter's assassination. At the outset, Arthur struggled to overcome his reputation, stemming from his beginnings in politics as a politician from the New York City Republican political machine. He succeeded by embracing the cause of civil service reform. His advocacy for, and subsequent enforcement of, the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was the centerpiece of his administration
1834 Paul Thumann a German illustrator and painter.
1840 Johann II Prince of Liechtenstein the Prince of Liechtenstein between 1858 and 1929. His reign of 70 years and 90 days is the second-longest in European royal history after that of Louis XIV of France