Died on October 5

578 Justin II Byzantine Emperor from 565 to 574. He was the husband of Sophia, nephew of Justinian I and the Empress Theodora, and was therefore a member of the Justinian Dynasty. His reign is marked by war with Persia and the loss of the greater part of Italy. He presented the Cross of Justin II to Saint Peter's, Rome
610 Phocas Byzantine Emperor from 602 to 610. He usurped the throne from the Emperor Maurice, and was himself overthrown by Heraclius after losing a civil war
785 Ōtomo no Yakamochi a Japanese statesman and waka poet in the Nara period. He is a member of the Thirty-six Poetry Immortals. He was born into the prestigious Ōtomo clan; his grandfather was Ōtomo no Amaro and his father was Ōtomo no Tabito. Ōtomo no Kakimochi was his younger brother, and Ōtomo no Sakanoe no Iratsume his aunt. His granduncle is possibly Ōtomo no Komaro who came to Japan in the time of Empress Jitō
989 Henry III Duke of Bavaria the first Duke of Carinthia from 976 to 978, Duke of Bavaria from 983 to 985 and again Duke of Carinthia from 985 to 989.
1056 Henry III Holy Roman Emperor a member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. He was the eldest son of Conrad II of Germany and Gisela of Swabia. His father made him duke of Bavaria in 1026, after the death of Duke Henry V
1111 Robert II Count of Flanders Count of Flanders from 1093 to 1111. He became known as Robert of Jerusalem or Robert the Crusader after his exploits in the First Crusade
1112 Sigebert of Gembloux a medieval author, known mainly as a pro-Imperial historian of a universal chronicle, opposed to the expansive papacy of Gregory VII and Pascal He became in early life a monk in the Benedictine abbey of Gembloux.
1214 Alfonso VIII of Castile the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo. He is most remembered for his part in the Reconquista and the downfall of the Almohad Caliphate. After having suffered a great defeat with his own army at Alarcos against the Almohads, he led the coalition of Christian princes and foreign crusaders who broke the power of the Almohads in the Battle of the Navas de Tolosa in 1212, an event which marked the arrival of a tide of Christian supremacy on the Iberian peninsula
1285 Philip III of France a Capetian King of France who reigned from 1270 to 1285.
1308 Guy II de la Roche the Duke of Athens from 1287, the last duke of his family. He succeeded as a minor on the death of his father, William I, at a time when the duchy of Athens had exceeded the Principality of Achaea in wealth, power, and importance
1396 Juan Alonso de Guzmán 1st Count of Niebla the first Count of Niebla. He was a descendent of Alonso Pérez de Guzmán
1398 Blanche of Navarre Queen of France Queen consort of France as the wife of King Philip VI of France. She was the second child and daughter of Queen Joan II of Navarre and King Philip III of Navarre. She belonged to the House of Évreux, a cadet branch of the House of Capet, and married into the House of Valois, another cadet branch of the House of Capet
1399 Raymond of Capua a leading member of the Dominican Order and served as its Master General from 1380 until his death. He was beatified by the Catholic Church in 1899. First as Prior Provincial of Lombardy and then as Master General of the Order, Raymond undertook the restoration of Dominican religious life. For his success in this endeavor, he is referred to as its "second founder"
1487 Wenceslaus II of Zator a Duke of Zator during 1468-1474 , and ruler over half of Zator from 1474 until his death.
1491 Jean Balue a French cardinal and minister of Louis XI.
1523 Bogislaw X Duke of Pomerania Duke of Pomerania from 1474 until his death in 1523.
1524 Joachim Patinir a Flemish Northern Renaissance history and landscape painter from the area of modern Wallonia. He was probably the uncle of Herri met de Bles, his follower in establishing the world landscape, a distinct style of panoramic northern Renaissance landscapes
1528 Richard Foxe an English churchman, successively Bishop of Exeter, Bath and Wells, Durham, and Winchester, Lord Privy Seal, and founder of Corpus Christi College, Oxford.
1540 Helius Eobanus Hessus a German Latin poet born at Halgehausen in Hesse-Kassel.
1564 Pierre de Manchicourt a Renaissance composer of the Franco-Flemish School.
1565 Lodovico Ferrari an Italian mathematician.
1595 Faizi a poet and scholar of late medieval India. In 1588, he became the Malik-ush-Shu'ara of Akbar's Court. He was the elder brother of Akbar's historian Abul Fazl. Akbar highly recognised the genius in him and appointed him tutor for his sons and gave place to him among his decorative 'Navaratnas'
1606 Philippe Desportes a French poet.
1637 Daniel Cramer a German Lutheran theologian and writer from Reetz , Brandenburg. He was an opponent of the Ramists and the Jesuits
1678 Hedevig Ulfeldt the daughter of king Christian IV of Denmark and Kirsten Munk. She was the twin of her sister Christiane Sehested. She shared the title Countess of Schleswig-Holstein with her mother and siblings
1714 Kaibara Ekken a Japanese Neo-Confucianist philosopher and botanist.
1740 Jean-Philippe Baratier a German scholar. A noted child prodigy of the 18th century, he published eleven works and authored a great quantity of unpublished manuscripts
1743 Henry Carey (writer) an English poet, dramatist and song-writer. He is remembered as an anti-Walpolean satirist and also as a patriot. Several of his melodies continue to be sung today, and he was widely praised in the generation after his death. Because he worked in anonymity, selling his own compositions to others to pass off as their own, contemporary scholarship can only be certain of some of his poetry, and a great deal of the music he composed was written for theatrical incidental music. However, under his own name and hand, he was a prolific song writer and balladeer, and he wrote the lyrics for almost all of these songs. Further, he wrote numerous operas and plays. His life is illustrative of the professional author in the early 18th century. Without inheritance or title or governmental position, he wrote for all of the remunerative venues, and yet he also kept his own political point of view and was able to score significant points against the ministry of the day. Further, he was one of the leading lights of the new "Patriotic" movement in drama
1763 Augustus III of Poland King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1734 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire from 1733 until 1763 where he was known as Frederick Augustus II.
1777 Johann Andreas Segner a Hungarian scientist. He was born in the Kingdom of Hungary, in the former Hungarian capital city of Pozsony
1784 Antonín Kammel a composer and violinist. His best-known composition is String Quartet 2
1786 Johann Gottlieb Gleditsch a German physician and botanist known for pioneer investigations of plant sexuality and reproduction.
1798 Antoine de Chézy a French hydraulics engineer. He is known for the Chézy formula, which concerned the velocity of pipe flow, and in modified form he used for open channel flow as well. He died in 1798 after being director of the École nationale des ponts et chaussées for less than a year. His son was the orientalist Antoine-Léonard de Chézy
1805 Charles Cornwallis 1st Marquess Cornwallis a British Army officer and colonial administrator. In the United States and the United Kingdom he is best remembered as one of the leading British generals in the American War of Independence. His surrender in 1781 to a combined American and French force at the Siege of Yorktown ended significant hostilities in North America. He also served as a civil and military governor in Ireland and India; in both places he brought about significant changes, including the Act of Union in Ireland, and the Cornwallis Code and the Permanent Settlement in India
1813 Tecumseh a Native American leader of the Shawnee and a large tribal confederacy which opposed the United States during Tecumseh's War and became an ally of Britain in the War of 1812.
1815 Hipólito Vieytes an Argentine merchant and soldier. He was the son of Juan Vieytes and Petrona Mora Fernández de Agüero. His family's house was at 133 Calle Real in front of the central square
1816 Manuel Rodríguez Torices a Neogranadine statesman, lawyer, journalist, and Precursor of the Independence of Colombia. He was part of the Triumvirate of the United Provinces of New Granada in 1815, and served as Vice President of the United Provinces after the triumvirate. He was executed during the Reign of Terror of Pablo Morillo in 1816
1816 Camilo Torres Tenorio a Colombian politician. He is credited as being an early founder of the nation due to his role in early struggles for independence from Spain
1818 Nancy Lincoln best known as the mother of United States President Abraham Lincoln. Her marriage to Thomas Lincoln also produced a daughter, Sarah Lincoln. When Nancy and Thomas had been married for just over 10 years, the family moved from Kentucky to Spencer County, Indiana. Nancy Lincoln died from milk sickness at the Little Pigeon Creek settlement in Spencer County when Abraham was nine years old
1828 Charlotte Princess Royal Queen of Württemberg as the wife of King Frederick. She was the eldest daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom
1837 Hortense de Beauharnais the stepdaughter of Emperor Napoleon I, being the daughter of his first wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais. She later became the wife of the former's brother, Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, and the mother of Napoleon III, Emperor of the French. She had also an illegitimate son, Charles Auguste Louis Joseph, duc de Morny, by her lover Charles Joseph, comte de Flahaut
1848 Joseph Hormayr Baron zu Hortenburg an Austrian and German statesman and historian.
1851 Marie Jules César Savigny a French zoologist.
1852 Achille Richard a French botanist and physician.
1855 Thomas Mitchell (explorer) born at Grangemouth in Stirlingshire, Scotland. In 1827 he took up an appointment as Assistant Surveyor General of New South Wales. The following year he became Surveyor General and remained in this position until his death. Mitchell was knighted in 1839 for his contribution to the surveying of Australia
1861 Antoni Melchior Fijałkowski the Archbishop Metropolitan of Warsaw and spiritual leader of the nation during the Partitions of Poland.
1861 Matthias Ward a lawyer and United States Senator from Texas.
1864 Imre Madách a Hungarian writer, poet, lawyer and politician. His major work is The Tragedy of Man. It is a dramatic poem approximately 4000 lines long, which elaborates on ideas comparable to Goethe's Faust. The author was encouraged and advised by János Arany, one of the most famous of 19th century Hungarian poets
1874 Francis Walker (entomologist) an English entomologist. He was one of the most prolific authors in entomology, and stirred controversy during his later life as his publications resulted in a huge number of junior synonyms
1874 Bryan Procter an English poet.