Born on October 6

1008 Menendo González a semi-autonomous Duke of Galicia and Count of Portugal and a dominant figure in the Kingdom of León around the turn of the second millennium. He was the tutor and father-in-law of King Alfonso V from at least 1003. He maintained peaceful diplomatic relations with the Caliphate of Córdoba until 1004, after which there was a state of war. In his last years he had to deal with Viking raids, during one of which he may have been killed
1145 Baldwin (archbishop of Pisa) a Cistercian monk and later Archbishop of Pisa, a correspondent of Bernard of Clairvaux, and a reformer of the Republic of Pisa. Throughout his episcopate, he greatly expanded the authority of his diocese, making it the most powerful institution in Liguria and Sardinia, and notably increased its landholdings
1289 Wenceslaus III of Bohemia by inheritance the King of Bohemia , the King of Hungary and the King of Poland.
1459 Martin Behaim a German mariner, artist, cosmographer, astronomer, philosopher, geographer and explorer in service to the King of Portugal.
1510 Rowland Taylor an English Protestant martyr during the Marian Persecutions.
1510 John Caius an English physician, and second founder of the present Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.
1552 Matteo Ricci S.J. was an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China missions. His 1602 map of the world in Chinese characters introduced the findings of European exploration to East Asia. Within Roman Catholicism, he is considered a Servant of God
1573 Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton the only son of Henry Wriothesley, 2nd Earl of Southampton, and Mary Browne, daughter of Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montagu. Shakespeare's two narrative poems, Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece, were dedicated to Southampton, who is generally identified as the Fair Youth of Shakespeare's Sonnets
1577 Ferdinand of Bavaria (bishop) Prince-elector archbishop of the Archbishopric of Cologne from 1612 to 1650 as successor of Ernest of Bavaria. He was also prince-bishop of Hildesheim, Liège, Münster, and Paderborn
1591 Settimia Caccini an Italian composer and singer. She was the youngest daughter of composer Giulio Caccini and singer Lucia Gagnolanti. Her mother died when she was very young. She was the sister of Francesca Caccini, also a composer and singer, and Pompeo Caccini, a singer. Due to the level of musical talent in her family, Settimia started her musical education at an early age, going on to be a successful singer and composer in her own right
1610 Charles de Sainte-Maure duc de Montausier a French soldier and the governor of the dauphin, Louis le Grand Dauphin, the eldest son and heir of Louis XIV, King of France.
1614 Francesco de' Medici (1614–1634) the fourth son of Grand Duke Cosimo II of Tuscany and his wife, Maria Maddalena of Austria. He died unmarried
1626 Géraud de Cordemoy a French philosopher, historian and lawyer. He is mainly known for his works in metaphysics and for his theory of language
1631 Emmanuel Prince of Anhalt-Köthen a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Plötzkau. From 1665, he was ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Köthen
1641 Matthijs Quast a Dutch explorer in the seventeenth century. He had made several voyages for the VOC to Japan, China and Siam
1706 Princess Charlotte Amalie of Denmark a Danish princess, issue of King Frederick IV of Denmark and Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow.
1716 George Montagu-Dunk 2nd Earl of Halifax a British statesman of the Georgian era. Due to his success in extending American commerce he became known as "father of the colonies". President of the Board of Trade 1748-61, he aided the foundation of Nova Scotia, 1749, the capital Halifax being named after him
1726 Maria Teresa Felicitas d'Este born a princess of Modena and was by marriage the Duchess of Penthièvre. She was the mother-in-law of Philippe Égalité and thus the grandmother to the future Louis-Philippe of France
1732 Joseph Leutgeb an outstanding horn player of the classical era, a friend and musical inspiration for Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
1732 John Broadwood the Scottish founder of the piano manufacturer Broadwood and Sons.
1732 Nevil Maskelyne the fifth English Astronomer Royal. He held the office from 1765 to 1811
1735 Jesse Ramsden an English mathematician, astronomical and scientific instrument maker.
1738 Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (1738–1789) the second but eldest surviving daughter of Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor.
1738 Charles-Joseph Mathon de la Cour a French art critic, mathematician, financier, and essayist. He was the son of the mathematician Jacques Mathon de la Cour
1742 Johan Herman Wessel a Norwegian-Danish poet. Some of his satirical poems are still popular
1744 James McGill Lt.-Colonel The Hon. James McGill was a Scottish-Canadian businessman and philanthropist best known for being the founder of McGill University, Montreal. He was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada for Montreal West in 1792 and was appointed to the Executive Council of Lower Canada in 1793. He was the first honorary Lieutenant-Colonel of the The Canadian Grenadier Guards. He was also a prominent member of the Château Clique and one of the original founding members of the Beaver Club. His summer home stood within the Golden Square Mile
1752 Jeanne-Louise-Henriette Campan a French educator, writer and lady-in-waiting. In the service of Marie Antoinette before and during the French Revolution, she was afterwards headmistress of the first "Maison d'éducation de la Légion d'honneur", as appointed by Napoleon in 1807
1764 Christian Friedrich Wilhelm Jacobs born at Gotha. After studying philology and theology at Jena and Göttingen, in 1785 he became teacher in the gymnasium of his native town, and in 1802 was appointed to an office in the public library. In 1807 he became classical tutor in the lyceum of Munich, but, disgusted at the attacks made upon him by the old Bavarian Catholic party, who resented the introduction of north German teachers, he returned to Gotha in 1810 to take charge of the library and the numismatic cabinet. He remained in Gotha till his death on 30 March 1847
1764 Carlos Frederico Lecor Viscount of Laguna a Portuguese general and politician. He was the first Baron of Laguna, in Portugal, and later ascended to Viscount of Laguna, in Brazil
1767 Henri Christophe a former slave and key leader in the Haitian Revolution, which succeeded in gaining independence from France in 1804. In 1805 he took part under Jean-Jacques Dessalines in the capturing of Santo Domingo , against French forces who acquired the colony from Spain in the Treaty of Basel
1769 Isaac Brock a British Army officer and administrator from Guernsey. Brock was assigned to Lower Canada in 1802. Despite facing desertions and near-mutinies, he commanded his regiment in Upper Canada successfully for many years. He was promoted to major general, and became responsible for defending Upper Canada against the United States. While many in Canada and Britain believed war could be averted, Brock began to ready the army and militia for what was to come. When the War of 1812 broke out, the populace was prepared, and quick victories at Fort Mackinac and Detroit defeated American invasion efforts
1773 Louis Philippe I King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party. His father Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans had supported the Revolution of 1789 but was nevertheless guillotined during the Reign of Terror. Louis Philippe fled France and spent 21 years in exile. He was proclaimed king in 1830 after Charles X, a Bourbon, was forced to abdicate. His reign, known as the July Monarchy, was dominated by wealthy elite and numerous former Napoleonic officials. He followed conservative policies especially under the influence of François Guizot in 1840–48. He promoted friendship with Britain and sponsored colonial expansion, notably the conquest of Algeria. His popularity faded and he was forced to abdicate in 1848; he lived out his life in exile in England
1775 Johann Anton André a German composer and music publisher best known for his central place in Mozart research.
1779 Francis IV Duke of Modena Duke of Modena, Reggio, and Mirandola , Duke of Massa and Prince of Carrara , Archduke of Austria-Este, Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. He was a grandson of Maria Theresa of Austria, head of the House of Habsburg, and was heir to the Modena branch of the House of Este through his mother. He thus became the first member of the House of Habsburg-Este to rule the Este inheritance in Northern Italy
1779 Mountstuart Elphinstone a Scottish statesman and historian, associated with the government of British India. He later became the Governor of Bombay where he is credited with the opening of several educational institutions accessible to the Indian population. Besides being a noted administrator, he wrote books on India and Afghanistan
1780 Charles Adam a British naval officer who served during the Napoleonic Wars. He later commanded the royal yacht, Royal Sovereign, and was the Member of Parliament for Clackmannanshire and Kinross-shire. He held the office of First Naval Lord three times. In that capacity he dealt ably with the economies of a peacetime budget, provided naval support for the expulsion of Muhammad Ali's forces from Syria in 1840 and ensured technological progress continued. He was also the father of William Patrick Adam, a colonial administrator and Liberal politician
1782 James Gordon (Royal Navy officer) a distinguished British officer in the Royal Navy. He spent 75 years in the service, rising from the rank of midshipman to admiral of the fleet, and seeing action in the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812. Historian Bryan Perrett has suggested that his career was the model for events in the Horatio Hornblower novels of S. Forester
1783 François Magendie a French physiologist, considered a pioneer of experimental physiology. He is known for describing the foramen of Magendie. There is also a Magendie sign, a downward and inward rotation of the eye due to a lesion in the cerebellum. Magendie was a faculty at the College of France, holding the Chair of Medicine from 1830 to 1855
1783 Thomas Attwood a British banker, economist, political campaigner and Member of Parliament. He was the leading figure of the underconsumptionist Birmingham School of economists, and, as the founder of the Birmingham Political Union, the leading figure in the public campaign for the Great Reform Act of 1832
1784 Charles Dupin a French Catholic mathematician, engineer, economist and politician, particularly known for work in the field of mathematics, where the Dupin cyclide and Dupin indicatrix are named after him; and for his work in the field of statistical and thematic mapping, In 1826 he created the earliest known choropleth map.
1792 Frans Peter von Knorring a social reformer on the Åland Islands. He was the vicar of Finström from 1834 to 1875 and he organized the educational system in Åland. He started an elementary school at Godby in 1853. The school's syllabus included subjects related to farming. A versatile man who published books on many subjects, such as linguistics, geography, pedagogy and economics, he also founded the first newspaper on Åland in 1868
1797 Joseph Othmar Rauscher an Austrian Prince-Archbishop of Vienna and Cardinal.
1801 Hippolyte Carnot a French statesman.
1803 Alexander Bunge a Baltic German botanist. He is best remembered for scientific expeditions into Asia and especially Siberia
1803 Heinrich Wilhelm Dove a Prussian physicist and meteorologist. He was the father of Alfred and Richard Dove
1808 Frederick VII of Denmark a King of Denmark from 1848 to 1863. He was the last Danish monarch of the older Royal branch of the House of Oldenburg and also the last king of Denmark to rule as an absolute monarch. During his reign, he signed a constitution that established a Danish parliament and made the country a constitutional monarchy
1820 Jenny Lind a Swedish opera singer, often known as the "Swedish Nightingale". One of the most highly regarded singers of the 19th century, she performed in soprano roles in opera in Sweden and across Europe, and undertook an extraordinarily popular concert tour of America beginning in 1850. She was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music from 1840
1821 Giuseppe Saracco an Italian politician, financier and Knight of the Annunziata.
1831 Richard Dedekind a German mathematician who made important contributions to abstract algebra , algebraic number theory and the foundations of the real numbers.
1832 Christian Mali a German painter and art professor. His older brother, Johannes Cornelis Jacobus Mali was also a painter