Born on October 7

13 Drusus Julius Caesar the only child of Roman Emperor Tiberius and his first wife, Vipsania Agrippina. He was also a maternal cousin of the Emperor Caligula, a paternal cousin of the Emperor Claudius and a second cousin of the Emperor Nero
1301 Aleksandr Mikhailovich of Tver a Prince of Tver as Alexander I and Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal as Alexander II.
1409 Elizabeth of Luxembourg queen consort of Germany, Hungary and Bohemia.
1471 Frederick I of Denmark the King of Denmark and Norway. The name is also spelled Friedrich in German, Frederik in Danish, and Fredrik in Swedish and Norwegian. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over Denmark, when subsequent monarchs embraced Lutheranism after the Reformation
1573 William Laud an English churchman and academic, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1633, during the personal rule of Charles Arrested in 1640, he was executed in 1645.
1576 John Marston (poet) an English poet, playwright and satirist during the late Elizabethan and Jacobean periods. His career as a writer lasted a decade, and his work is remembered for its energetic and often obscure style, its contributions to the development of a distinctively Jacobean style in poetry, and its idiosyncratic vocabulary
1586 Isaac Massa a Dutch grain trader, traveller and diplomat, the envoy to Muscovy, author of memoirs witnessing the Time of Troubles and the maps of Eastern Europe and Siberia. He was married to Beatrix van der Laen. Massa's experience in and knowledge of Muscovy transformed him into a Dutch "Kremlinologist." The Isaac Massa Foundation in Groningen aims to stimulate scientific and cultural contacts between the Russian Federation and the Netherlands
1589 Archduchess Maria Maddalena of Austria Grand Duchess of Tuscany from the accession of her husband, Cosimo II, in 1609 until his death in 1621. With him, she had eight children, including a duchess of Parma, a grand duke of Tuscany, and an archduchess of Further Austria. Born in Graz, she was the youngest daughter of Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria, and his wife Maria Anna of Bavaria. During the minority of her son, Grand Duke Ferdinando, she and her mother-in-law acted as regents. She died on 1 November 1631 in Padua
1601 Florimond de Beaune a French jurist and mathematician, and an early follower of René Descartes. Taton calls him "a typical example of the erudite amateurs" active in 17th-century science
1645 Bernard Desjean Baron de Pointis a French admiral and privateer.
1661 Sukjong of Joseon the 19th king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1674 to 1720. A skilled politician, he caused multiple changes of political alliance throughout his reign, switching between the Southerner, Westerner, Soron, and Noron political factions
1667 Avtonom Golovin a Russian military leader and one of the associates of Peter the Great.
1672 Ernst Ludwig I Duke of Saxe-Meiningen a German nobleman.
1711 John Mavrocordatos caimacam of Moldavia and Prince of Wallachia between 2 December 1716 and 23 February 1719. He was a member of the Mavrocordatos family
1713 Granville Elliott a British military officer. He served with distinction in several other European armies and subsequently in the British Army. He fought at the Battle of Minden where he was wounded, dying of his injuries several weeks later
1728 Caesar Rodney an American lawyer and politician from Jones Neck in Dover Hundred, Kent County, Delaware, east of Dover. He was an officer of the Delaware militia during the French and Indian War and the American Revolution, a Continental Congressman from Delaware, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and President of Delaware during most of the American Revolution
1734 Ralph Abercromby a Scottish soldier and politician. He rose to the rank of lieutenant-general in the British Army, was noted for his services during the Napoleonic Wars, and served as Commander-in-Chief, Ireland
1744 Sergey Vyazmitinov a Russian general and statesman.
1746 William Billings regarded as the first American choral composer.
1747 Antoine Nicolas Duchesne a French botanist known for his keen observation of variation within species, and for demonstrating that species are not immutable, because mutations can occur. "As Duchesne's observations were unaided by knowledge of modern concepts of genetics and molecular biology, his insight was truly remarkable." His particular interests were in strawberries and gourds
1748 Charles XIII of Sweden King of Sweden from 1809 and King of Norway from 1814 until his death. He was the second son of King Adolf Frederick of Sweden and Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, sister of Frederick II of Prussia
1766 Marie-François Auguste de Caffarelli du Falga a French général de division of Italian descent. Two of his brothers were also generals. His name is inscribed on the south side of the Arc de Triomphe
1769 Solomon Sibley a United States politician and jurist in the Michigan Territory.
1774 Ferdinando Orlandi an Italian composer best known for his operas. Born in Parma, he was a pupil of organist Gaspare Rugarli and composer Ferdinando Paer. He also studied at the Conservatorio della Pietà dei Turchini in Naples with Nicola Sala and Giacomo Tritto. In 1800, he took a position at the ducal court in Parma. He worked as a singing teacher in Milan , Monaco , and Stuttgart. In 1834 he was appointed maestro di cappella of the Parma Cathedral. He composed at least 25 operas between 1800 and 1820
1783 Augustus Granville a physician, writer, and Italian patriot.
1786 Louis-Joseph Papineau a politician, lawyer, and the landlord of the seigneurie de la Petite-Nation. He was the leader of the reformist Patriote movement before the Lower Canada Rebellion of 1837–1838. His father was Joseph Papineau, also a famous politician in Quebec. Papineau was the eldest of eight children
1794 Wilhelm Müller a German lyric poet.
1797 Peter Georg Bang a Danish politician and jurist. He served as the Prime Minister of Denmark 1854-1856 as leader of the Cabinet of Bang
1798 Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume an illustrious French luthier and winner of many awards. He made over 3,000 instruments and was also a fine businessman and an inventor
1799 Mills Darden alleged to have been one of the largest men in history. He was widely reported to have stood approximately 7 feet 6 inches tall and is said to have weighed around 1,000 to 1,100 pounds at his heaviest, and possibly more. If the reported figures are correct, Darden was 30 percent taller and about six times as heavy as the average American male of the 21st-century
1802 Bernhard Molique a German violinist and composer.
1809 Johann Heinrich Blasius a German zoologist. His son, August Wilhelm Heinrich Blasius , was an ornithologist
1817 Bushrod Johnson one of the few Northern-born Confederate generals in the American Civil War. As a university professor, he had been active in the state militias of Kentucky and Tennessee, and on the outbreak of hostilities, he sided with the South. As a divisional commander, he managed to evade capture at Fort Donelson, but was wounded at Shiloh. He served under Lee throughout the 10-month siege of Petersburg, surrendering with him at Appomattox
1821 Richard H. Anderson a career U.S. Army officer, fighting with distinction in the Mexican-American War. He also served as a Confederate general during the American Civil War, fighting in the Eastern Theater of the conflict and most notably during the 1864 Battle of Spotsylvania Court House. Anderson was also noted for his humility
1822 Rudolf Leuckart a German zoologist born in Helmstedt. He was a nephew to naturalist Friedrich Sigismund Leuckart
1824 Lorenzo Respighi an Italian mathematician and natural philosopher. Born at Cortemaggiore, Piacenza, he studied mathematics and natural philosophy, first at Parma and then at the University of Bologna, where he obtained his degree ad honorem in 1845. From 1855 to 1864 he was director of the Astronomic Observatory of Bologna, and during these years he discovered three comets, #1862 IV, #1863 III and #1863 In 1865 he was nominated director of the Astronomic Observatory of the Campidoglio, in Rome
1828 Miksa Falk a Hungarian politician, journalist, member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the editor-in-chief of the German-language newspaper Pester Lloyd.
1832 William Thomas Blanford an English geologist and naturalist. He is best remembered as the editor of a major series on The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma
1832 Charles Crozat Converse a United States attorney who also worked as a composer of church songs. He was born in Warren, Massachusetts. He is notable for setting to music the words of Joseph Scriven to become the hymn "What a Friend We Have in Jesus". Converse also published an arrangement of "The Death of Minnehaha", with words by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. He studied law and music in Leipzig, Germany, returned home in 1857, and was graduated at the Albany Law School in 1861. Many of his musical compositions appeared under the anagrammatic pen-names “C. Nevers,” “Karl Reden,” and “E. Revons.” He published a cantata , New Method for the Guitar , Musical Bouquet , The One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Psalm , Sweet Singer , Church Singer and Sayings of Sages. Converse proposed the use of the gender-neutral pronoun, "Thon"
1835 Felix Draeseke a composer of the "New German School" admiring Liszt and Richard Wagner. He wrote compositions in most forms including eight operas and stage works, four symphonies, and much vocal and chamber music
1836 Henri Elzéar Taschereau a Canadian jurist and the fourth Chief Justice of Canada.
1841 Nicholas I of Montenegro king of Montenegro, reigning as king from 1910 to 1918 and as prince from 1860 to 1910. He was also a poet, notably penning "Onamo, 'namo!", a popular song from Montenegro
1847 Emil Holub a Czech physician, explorer, cartographer, and ethnographer in Africa. In a 2005 poll, he was voted #90 of the 100 greatest Czechs
1849 James Whitcomb Riley an American writer, poet, and best-selling author. During his lifetime he was known as the "Hoosier Poet" and "Children's Poet" for his dialect works and his children's poetry respectively. His poems tended to be humorous or sentimental, and of the approximately one thousand poems that Riley authored, the majority are in dialect. His famous works include "Little Orphant Annie" and "The Raggedy Man"
1851 Chris von der Ahe a German-American entrepreneur, best known as the owner of the Louis Brown Stockings of the American Association, now known as the Louis Cardinals.
1853 John Bernhard Leiberg a Swedish botanical explorer, forester, and bryologist in the northwestern United States. Leiberg came to America in 1868 and settled near Lake Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. He spent the first part of his career as an explorer and plant collector for various flora projects mainly in Idaho, Washington, Oregon, and Nevada. Later he worked with the United States Geological Survey. With little formal education, at age 17 he began publishing plant collections and in 1884 he and his wife, Carrie, settled n the Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho Territory. His wife was a doctor and surgeon. He supplied specimens to the New York Botanical Garden and in 1892 he spent the winter in Hamilton, Montana. He worked as a field botanist for Frederic Coville, curator of the US National Herbarium and in 1897 he was transferred to the US Geological Survey and assigned to examine the area of the 6480 square mile Bitterroot Forest Reserve which later became National Forests in Montana and Idaho. He surveyed the Bitterroot reserve in 1897 and 1898 and wrote the 19th and 20th annual reports for the US Geological Survey describing the topography, trees and mapping locations in an area previously relatively undocumented. From 1900 to 1904 he published descriptions of several other western forest reserves. He spent a short time in the Philippines, a US protectorate, where he was a forest inspector for the Insular Forest Service. He left government service in 1906 and briefly settled on a farm in Eugene, Oregon. He traveled the world in 1910 and died in 1913. He contributed to and authored many publications including Contributions to the Flora of Idaho and Minnesota and many forestry related works. sa
1854 Christiaan de Wet a Boer general, rebel leader and politician.
1856 Edward Jones (statistician) a U.S. statistician, mostly known for being the "Jones" in the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
1866 Wlodimir Ledóchowski Very Rev. Wlodimir Ledóchowski, S.J. was the 26th Superior-General of the Society of Jesus
1867 Domenico Jorio S.T.D. J.U.D. was a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Prefect of the Congregation for Discipline of Sacraments