October 7 events in history

1477 Uppsala University is inaugurated after receiving its corporate rights from Pope Sixtus IV in February the same year
1513 Battle of La Motta: Spanish troops under Ramón de Cardona defeat the Venetians
1542 Explorer Cabrillo discovers Santa Catalina Island off of the California coast
1571 The Battle of Lepanto is fought, and the Holy League (Spain and Italy) annihilates the Turkish fleet
1582 Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, this day is skipped in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain
1691 The English royal charter for the Province of Massachusetts Bay is issued
1763 King George III of the United Kingdom issues the Royal Proclamation of 1763, closing aboriginal lands in North America north and west of Alleghenies to white settlements
1776 Crown Prince Paul of Russia marries Sophie Marie Dorothea of Württemberg
1777 American Revolutionary War: The Americans defeat the British in the Second Battle of Saratoga, also known as the Battle of Bemis Heights
1780 American Revolutionary War: Battle of Kings Mountain: American Patriot militia defeat Loyalist irregulars led by British major Patrick Ferguson in South Carolina
1800 French corsair Robert Surcouf, commander of the 18-gun ship La Confiance, captures the British 38-gun Kent inspiring the traditional French song Le Trente-et-un du mois d'août
1826 The Granite Railway begins operations as the first chartered railway in the U.S
1828 Morea expedition: The city of Patras, Greece, is liberated by the French expeditionary force in the Peloponnese under General Maison
1840 Willem II becomes King of the Netherlands
1862 Royal Columbian Hospital (RCH) opens as the first hospital in the Canadian province of British Columbia
1864 American Civil War: Bahia incident: USS Wachusett illegally captures the CSS Florida Confederate raider while in port in Bahia, Brazil in violation of Brazilian neutrality
1868 Cornell University holds opening day ceremonies; initial student enrollment is 412, the highest at any American university to that date
1870 Franco-Prussian War: Siege of Paris: Léon Gambetta flees Paris in a hot-air balloon
1879 Germany and Austria-Hungary sign the "Twofold Covenant" and create the Dual Alliance
1912 The Helsinki Stock Exchange sees its first transaction
1916 Georgia Tech defeats Cumberland University 222–0 in the most lopsided college football game in American history
1919 KLM, the flag carrier of the Netherlands, is founded. It is the oldest airline still operating under its original name
1924 Andreas Michalakopoulos becomes Prime Minister of Greece for a short period of time
1929 Photios II becomes Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
1933 Air France is inaugurated, after being formed by a merger of 5 French airlines
1940 World War II: The McCollum memo proposes bringing the United States into the war in Europe by provoking the Japanese to attack the United States
1942 World War II: The October Matanikau action on Guadalcanal begins as United States Marine Corps forces attack Imperial Japanese Army units along the Matanikau River
1944 World War II: During an uprising at Birkenau concentration camp, Jewish prisoners burn down the crematoria
1949 The communist German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is formed
1950 Mother Teresa build an order called Missionary of Charity
1955 American poet Allen Ginsberg performs his poem Howl for the first time at the Six Gallery in San Francisco
1958 President of Pakistan Iskander Mirza, with the support of General Ayub Khan and the army, suspends the 1956 constitution, imposes martial law, and cancels the elections scheduled for January 1959
1958 The U.S. manned space-flight project is renamed Project Mercury
1959 U.S.S.R. probe Luna 3 transmits the first ever photographs of the far side of the Moon
1960 Nigeria joins the United Nations
1963 John F. Kennedy signs the ratification of the Partial Test Ban Treaty
1976 Hua Guofeng becomes Mao Zedong's successor as chairman of Communist Party of China, following the latter's death barely a month earlier
1977 The adoption of the Fourth Soviet Constitution
1985 The Achille Lauro is hijacked by Palestine Liberation Front
1985 The Mameyes landslide kills close to 300 in the worst landslide in North American history
1987 Sikh nationalists declares the independence of Khalistan from India; it is not internationally recognized
1988 An Inupiaq hunter discovers three gray whales trapped under the ice in Barrow, Alaska, US; the situation becomes a multinational effort to free the whales
1991 Croatian War of Independence: Bombing of Banski dvori in Zagreb kills one civilian
1993 The flood of '93 ends at St. Louis, Missouri, 103 days after it began, as the Mississippi River falls below flood stage
1996 The Fox News Channel begins broadcasting
1998 Matthew Shepard, a gay student at the University of Wyoming, is found tied to a fence after being savagely beaten by two young adults in Laramie, Wyoming
2001 The U.S. invasion of Afghanistan begins with an air assault and covert operations on the ground
2003 The governor of California, Gray Davis, is recalled in favor of Arnold Schwarzenegger