Died on October 8

705 Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan the 5th Umayyad Caliph. He was born in Medina, Hejaz. `Abd al-Malik was a well-educated man and capable ruler, despite the many political problems that impeded his rule. The 14th-century Muslim historian Ibn Khaldun states: "`Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan is one of the greatest Arab and Muslim Caliphs. He followed in the footsteps of `Umar ibn al-Khattab, the Commander of the Believers, in regulating state affairs"
892 Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi a Persian Islamic scholar and collector of hadith who wrote al-Jami` as-Sahih , one of the six canonical hadith compilations in Sunni Islam. He also wrote Shama'il Muhammadiyah , a compilation of hadiths concerning the person and character of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. At-Tirmidhi was also well versed in Arabic grammar, favoring the school of Kufa over Basra due to the former's preservation of Arabic poetry as a primary source
976 Helen of Zadar the queen consort of the Kingdom of Croatia, as the wife of King Michael Krešimir II, from 946 to 969, a period which was allegedly marked by "peace, order and expeditious growth". She became the queen dowager of Croatia after her husband and reigned until her death. Queen Helen was "revered by her subjects" and "most adored for her charity"
1286 John I Duke of Brittany Duke of Brittany from 1237 to his death and 2nd Earl of Richmond in 1268. He was the son of Duke Peter I, Duke of Brittany jure uxoris and Alix of Thouars, hereditary Duchess of Brittany
1317 Emperor Fushimi the 92nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1287 through 1298
1354 Cola di Rienzo an Italian medieval politician and popular leader, tribune of the Roman people in the mid-14th century.
1436 Jacqueline Countess of Hainaut Duchess of Bavaria-Straubing, Countess of Holland and Zeeland and Countess of Hainaut from 1417 to 1433. She was also Dauphine of France for a short time between 1415 and 1417 and Duchess of Gloucester in the 1420s, if her marriage to Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, is accepted as valid
1469 Filippo Lippi Fra' Filippo Lippi, O.Carm. also called Lippo Lippi, was an Italian painter of the Quattrocento
1575 Jan Matsys a Flemish Renaissance painter known for his history paintings, genre scenes and landscapes.
1594 Ishikawa Goemon For the character in the Ganbare Goemon franchise, see Goemon.
1611 Pierre de L'Estoile a Parisian diarist and collector.
1647 Christen Sørensen Longomontanus a Danish astronomer.
1652 John Greaves an English mathematician, astronomer and antiquary.
1656 John George I Elector of Saxony Elector of Saxony from 1611 to 1656.
1659 Jean de Quen a French Jesuit missionary, priest and historian who discovered Lac Saint-Jean. As head of Jesuit missions of New France, he founded the missions to Saguenay. Jean de Quen was the first European to see Lake Piékouagami
1672 Abraham Lambertsz van den Tempel a Dutch Golden Age painter.
1704 Mukai Kyorai a Japanese haikai poet, and a close disciple of Matsuo Bashō. A physician's son, he was born in Nagasaki, and connected with Bashō in the 1680s. In 1691 he was one of the compilers, together with Nozawa Bonchō, of the Sarumino Bashō-school collection. After Bashō's death he produced Kyoraishō, a rich source for the ideas of, and anecdotes about, his master
1735 Yongzheng Emperor the fifth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty and the third Qing emperor from 1722 to 1735. A hard-working ruler, Yongzheng's main goal was to create an effective government at minimal expense. Like his father, the Kangxi Emperor, Yongzheng used military force to preserve the dynasty's position. His reign was known as despotic, efficient, and vigorous
1754 Henry Fielding an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humour and satirical prowess, and as the author of the novel Tom Jones.
1766 Franciszek Bieliński a Polish politician and statesman. A Grand Marshal of the Crown, Marshal of Prussia and a voivode of Chełmno, he is best remembered as a strong proponent of the expansion and the modernisation of the city of Warsaw. He is also the eponym of Marszałkowska Street in Warsaw, one of the major and most iconic streets of Poland's capital
1768 Pierre-Joseph Thoulier d'Olivet a French abbot, writer, grammarian and translator. He was elected the fourth occupant of Académie française seat 31
1772 Jean-Joseph de Mondonville a French violinist and composer. He was a younger contemporary of Jean-Philippe Rameau and enjoyed great success in his day. Pierre-Louis Daquin claimed: "If I couldn't be Rameau, there's no one I would rather be than Mondonville"
1783 Aleksandr Mikhailovich Golitsyn a Russian prince of the Galitzine and field marshal. He was the governor of Saint Petersburg in 1780 to 1783
1793 John Hancock a merchant, smuggler, statesman, and prominent Patriot of the American Revolution. He served as president of the Second Continental Congress and was the first and third Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. He is remembered for his large and stylish signature on the United States Declaration of Independence, drawn so that King George III would be able to read the Hancock name; so much so that the term "John Hancock" has become, in the United States, a synonym for a signature
1795 Andrew Kippis an English nonconformist clergyman and biographer.
1802 Emmanuel Vitale a Maltese notary, commander and statesman. During the Siege of Malta , he commanded 10,000 irregular Maltese soldiers
1803 Vittorio Alfieri an Italian dramatist and poet, considered the "founder of Italian tragedy.".
1804 Thomas Cochran (judge) a lawyer and judge in Prince Edward Island.
1808 Princess Wilhelmina of Hesse-Kassel a Prussian princess, married to prince Henry of Prussia.
1809 James Elphinston a well noted 18th century Scottish educator, orthographer, phonologist and linguistics expert.
1820 Henri Christophe a former slave and key leader in the Haitian Revolution, which succeeded in gaining independence from France in 1804. In 1805 he took part under Jean-Jacques Dessalines in the capturing of Santo Domingo , against French forces who acquired the colony from Spain in the Treaty of Basel
1826 Marie-Guillemine Benoist a French neoclassical, historical and genre painter.
1826 Friedrich Krupp now subsumed into ThyssenKrupp AG.
1834 François-Adrien Boieldieu a French composer, mainly of operas, often called "the French Mozart".
1850 Giuseppe Cammarano an Italian painter and leader of the Academy of Arts in his birthplace of Sciacca, Sicily.
1856 Théodore Chassériau a French romantic painter noted for his portraits, historical and religious paintings, allegorical murals, and Orientalist images inspired by his travels to Algeria.
1863 George Bonham a British colonial governor, who became the 3rd Governor of Hong Kong.
1863 Richard Whately an English rhetorician, logician, economist, and theologian who also served as the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Dublin.
1865 Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst a Moravian-Jewish violinist, violist and composer. He was widely seen as the outstanding violinist of his time and one of Paganini's greatest successors
1869 Franklin Pierce the 14th President of the United States , whose inability as president to calm tensions over slavery kept the country on the path to the Civil War. Genial and well-spoken, Pierce was a northern Democrat who saw the abolitionist movement as a fundamental threat to the unity of the nation. His polarizing actions in championing and signing the Kansas–Nebraska Act and enforcing the Fugitive Slave Act failed to stem intersectional conflict, setting the stage for Southern secession, and leaving him widely regarded as one of the worst presidents in U.S. history
1870 Félix Duban a French architect, the contemporary of Jacques Ignace Hittorff and Henri Labrouste.
1873 Albrecht Agthe a German music teacher.
1873 Georg Ritter von Frauenfeld an Austrian naturalist and one of the leading scientists on board the Austrian frigate Novara during its round-the-world voyage. He was heavily involved in the development of the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna where he was a curator
1874 Vítězslav Hálek a Czech poet, writer, journalist, dramatist and theatre critic. He is considered one of the most important representatives of the May school, along with Jan Neruda and Karolína Světlá
1878 Gideon Johnson Pillow a wealthy and influential American lawyer, politician, landowner and speculator, slaveowner, United States Army major general of volunteers during the Mexican-American War and Confederate brigadier general in the American Civil War. Pillow had several disputes and rivalries with fellow officers during both wars
1879 Miguel Grau Seminario the most renowned Peruvian naval officer and hero of the Naval Battle of Angamos during the War of the Pacific. He was known as el Caballero de los Mares for his chivalry and is esteemed by both Peruvians and Chileans. He is an iconic figure for the Peruvian Navy, and one of the most famous merchant marine and naval military leaders of America
1886 Austin F. Pike a United States Representative and Senator from New Hampshire. Born in Hebron, New Hampshire, he pursued an academic course, studied law, and was admitted to the bar of Merrimack County in 1845. He was a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives from 1850 to 1852 and in 1865–1866, and served as speaker during the last two years. He was a member of the New Hampshire Senate in 1857–1858, serving as president the last year
1888 Jules d'Anethan a Belgian Catholic Party politician.
1889 Johann Jakob von Tschudi a Swiss naturalist, explorer and diplomat.
1893 Aleksey Pleshcheyev a radical Russian poet of the 19th century, one of the Petrashevsky Circle.