Born on October 9

1200 Isabel Marshal a medieval English countess. She was the wife of both Gilbert de Clare, 4th Earl of Hertford and 5th Earl of Gloucester and Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall. With the former, she was a great grandparent of King Robert the Bruce of Scotland
1201 Robert de Sorbon a French theologian, the chaplain of Louis IX of France, and founder of the Sorbonne college in Paris.
1221 Salimbene di Adam a source for Italian history of the 13th century.
1261 Denis of Portugal King of Portugal and the Algarve. The eldest son of Afonso III of Portugal by his second wife, Beatrice of Castile and grandson of king Alfonso X of Castile , Denis succeeded his father in 1279
1269 Louis III Duke of Bavaria duke of Lower Bavaria from 1290 until 1296 as co-regnant with his brothers Otto III and Stephen I.
1328 Peter I of Cyprus King of Cyprus and titular King of Jerusalem from his father's abdication on 24 November 1358 until his own death in 1369. He was also Latin King of Armenia from either 1361 or 1368. He was the second son of Hugh IV of Cyprus, the first by his second wife Alice of Ibelin. He was also invested as titular Count of Tripoli when young, in 1346. He was the greatest King of Cyprus on a military basis, where he had great success. He was unable to complete many plans, due to internal dispute that culminated in his assassination at the hands of three of his own knights
1524 Ottavio Farnese Duke of Parma reigned as Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1547 and Duke of Castro from 1545 until his death.
1534 Guru Ram Das the fourth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and was given the title of Sikh Guru on 30 August 1574. He was Guru for seven years. Ram Das was born in Chuna Mandi Lahore, Punjab on 24 September 1534. His father was Hari Das and his mother Anup Devi. His wife was Bibi Bhani, the younger daughter of Guru Amar Das. They had three sons: Prithi Chand, Mahadev and Guru Arjan
1581 Claude Gaspard Bachet de Méziriac a French mathematician, linguist, poet and classics scholar born in Bourg-en-Bresse, at that time belonging to Duchy of Savoy.
1586 Leopold V Archduke of Austria the son of Archduke Archduke Charles II of Inner Austria, and the younger brother of Emperor Ferdinand II, father of Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Further Austria. He was Bishop of Passau and Strasbourg and Archduke of Further Austria including Tirol
1593 Nicolaes Tulp a Dutch surgeon and mayor of Amsterdam. Tulp was well known for his upstanding moral nothing and as the subject of Rembrandt's famous painting The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Nicolaes Tulp
1624 Murad Bakhsh a Mughal prince as the youngest son of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and his Empress consort Mumtaz Mahal. He was the Subedar of Balkh until he was replaced by his brother Aurangzeb in the year 1647
1663 Giovanni Mario Crescimbeni an Italian critic and poet. Crescimbeni was born in Macerata, which was then part of the Papal States
1693 Johann Lorenz von Mosheim a German Lutheran church historian.
1704 Johann Andreas Segner a Hungarian scientist. He was born in the Kingdom of Hungary, in the former Hungarian capital city of Pozsony
1727 Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne a French churchman, politician and finance minister of Louis XVI.
1735 Charles William Ferdinand Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel a sovereign prince of the Holy Roman Empire, and a professional soldier who served as a Generalfeldmarschall of the Kingdom of Prussia. Born in Wolfenbüttel, Germany, he was duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1780 until his death. He is a recognized master of the modern warfare of the mid-18th century, a cultured and benevolent despot in the model of Frederick the Great, and was married to Princess Augusta, a sister of George III of Great Britain. The botanical genus Brunsvigia was named in his honour
1751 Pierre Louis de Lacretelle a French lawyer, politician and writer.
1754 Jean-Baptiste Regnault a French painter.
1757 Charles X of France known for most of his life as the Count of Artois before he reigned as King of France and of Navarre from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830. An uncle of the uncrowned King Louis XVII, and younger brother to reigning Kings Louis XVI and Louis XVIII, he supported the latter in exile and eventually succeeded him. His rule of almost six years ended in the July Revolution of 1830, which resulted in his abdication and the election of Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, as King of the French. Exiled once again, Charles died in Gorizia, then part of the Austrian Empire. He was the last of the French rulers from the senior branch of the House of Bourbon descended from King Henry IV
1766 Bedřich Diviš Weber a Bohemian composer and musicologist primarily remembered as the first Director of the Prague Conservatory, in whose foundation he played a leading role.
1770 Amédée Louis Michel le Peletier comte de Saint-Fargeau a French entomologist, and specialist in the Hymenoptera.
1771 Frederick William Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel a German prince and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Oels. Nicknamed "The Black Duke", he was a military officer who led the Black Brunswickers against French domination in Germany. He briefly ruled the state of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1806-1807
1781 Dionisio de Herrera a Liberal Honduran politician, head of state of Honduras from 1824 to 1827 and head of state of Nicaragua from 1830 to 1833. During his terms, Honduras and Nicaragua were states within the Federal Republic of Central America. Herrera was an uncle of the Liberal Central American general Francisco Morazán
1796 Joseph Bonomi the Younger an English sculptor, artist, Egyptologist and museum curator.
1799 Louisa Stuart Costello a writer on travel and French history.
1800 José María Melo a Colombian general and politician of Pijao ancestry, who fought in the South American wars of independence, and who in 1854 rose to power and held the presidency of Colombia.
1800 Justin de Jacobis an Italian Lazarist missionary who became Vicar Apostolic of Abyssinia and titular Bishop of Nilopolis.
1802 Niccolò Tommaseo an Italian linguist, journalist and essayist, the editor of a Dizionario della Lingua Italiana in eight volumes , of a dictionary of synonyms and other works. He is considered a precursor of the Italian irredentism
1810 Johan August Wahlberg a Swedish naturalist and explorer. Wahlberg started studying chemistry at the University of Uppsala in 1829, and later forestry, agronomy and natural science, graduating from the Swedish Forestry Institute in 1834. In 1832 he joined Professor Carl Henrik Boheman, a famous entomologist, on a collecting trip to Norway. In 1833 and 1834 he travelled in Sweden and Germany on forestry research projects. He joined the Office of Land Survey and was appointed an engineer in 1836, becoming an instructor at the Swedish Land Survey College
1811 Princess Friederike of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg a daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel and an elder sister of Christian IX of Denmark. Friederike became the Duchess of Anhalt-Bernburg upon her marriage to Alexander Karl, Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg, the last Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg
1813 Georg Waitz a German historian and politician. Waitz is often spoken of as the chief disciple of Leopold von Ranke, though perhaps in general characteristics and mental attitude he has more affinity with Georg Heinrich Pertz or Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann. His special domain was medieval German history, and he rarely travelled beyond it
1813 Nikolai Stankevich a Russian public figure, philosopher, and poet.
1820 Grigory Butakov a Russian admiral who fought in the Crimean War. Butakov is widely credited as being the father of steam-powered ship tactics during the 19th century. He was involved in the first battles of the Crimean War, which includes the first sea battles involving steam-powered ships. Butakov wrote of his experiences in his book: New Principles of Steamboat Tactics , which won him the Demidov Prize. In 1881 Butakov assumed the role of Commander-in-Chief of the Port of Petersburg. He was also made a member of the State Council in March 1882. Shortly after gaining both titles however, Butakov fell seriously ill, and died on 31 May 1882, aged 62
1822 George Sykes a career United States Army officer and a Union General during the American Civil War.
1822 Onno Klopp a German historian, best known as the author of Der Fall des Hauses Stuart , the fullest existing account of the later Stuarts. He is also known as one of the few German historians who denigrated Frederick the Great
1824 Włodzimierz Wolski a Polish poet, novelist, translator, and librettist. He is best known as the author of the libretto to Stanisław Moniuszko's opera Halka
1825 Josef Jireček a Czech scholar.
1835 Camille Saint-Saëns a French composer, organist, conductor, and pianist of the Romantic era. He is known especially for The Carnival of the Animals, Danse macabre, Samson and Delilah , Violin Concerto 3, Piano Concerto 2, Cello Concerto 1, Havanaise, Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso, and his Symphony 3
1837 Francis Wayland Parker a pioneer of the progressive school movement in the United States. He believed that education should include the complete development of an individual — mental, physical, and moral. John Dewey called him the "father of progressive education." He worked to create curriculum that centered on the whole child and a strong language background. He was against standardization, isolated drill and rote learning. He helped to show that education was not just about cramming information into students’ minds, but about teaching students to think for themselves and become independent people
1838 Walter Buller a New Zealand lawyer, naturalist, and dominated in the field of New Zealand ornithology. His book, A history of the birds of New Zealand, first published in 1873, was published as an enlarged version in 1888 and became a New Zealand classic
1839 Pavel Pavlovich Demidov 2nd Prince of San Donato a Russian industrialist, jurist, philanthropist and nobleman of the Demidov family. His parents were Aurora Karamzina and her husband Pavel Nikolaievich Demidov
1840 Simeon Solomon an English Pre-Raphaelite painter.
1841 Teodor Rygier a Polish sculptor known for his Adam Mickiewicz Monument in Kraków, Poland. Rygier studied in Warsaw, Dresden, Munich and in Vienna. In the years 1865-1866 he studied sculpture in Berlin and in Paris. Subsequently, Rygier lived and worked in Florence between 1873-1886, and from 1886 in Rome. The Academy of Fine Arts of St Petersburg named him an academic, while the Academies of Fine Arts of Florence, and Bologna nominated him an honorary associate
1843 Christian Christiansen a Danish physicist.
1845 Erwin Rohde one of the great German classical scholars of the 19th century.
1846 Julius Maggi a Swiss entrepreneur, inventor of precooked soups and Maggi sauce. He was the youngest of five children of Michael Maggi, an immigrant from Italy, and his Swiss wife Sophie. He died in 1912 after a stroke. He married twice and had four daughters and two sons. He may also have collaborated with Auguste Escoffier in the late 19th century and thus commercialized the stock cube
1846 Holger Drachmann a Danish poet and dramatist. He is an outstanding figure of the Modern Break-Through
1848 Frank Duveneck an American figure and portrait painter.
1850 Hermann von Ihering a German-Brazilian zoologist. He was born at Kiel, Germany, and died at Gießen, Germany. He was the oldest son of Rudolf von Jhering