Died on October 9

290 Rhipsime an Armenian virgin and martyr of Roman origin. She and her companions in martyrdom are venerated as the first Christian martyrs of Armenia
1212 Philip I of Namur the margrave of Namur from 1195 until his death. He was the second son of Baldwin V, Count of Hainault, and Margaret I, Countess of Flanders. His paternal grandmother was Alice, Countess of Namur
1253 Robert Grosseteste an English statesman, scholastic philosopher, theologian, scientist and Bishop of Lincoln. He was born of humble parents at Stradbroke in Suffolk. C. Crombie calls him "the real founder of the tradition of scientific thought in medieval Oxford, and in some ways, of the modern English intellectual tradition"
1267 Otto III Margrave of Brandenburg Margrave of Brandenburg jointly with his elder brother John I until John died in 1266. Otto III then ruled alone, until his death, the following year
1273 Elisabeth of Bavaria Queen of Germany the queen consort of Conrad IV of Germany.
1296 Louis III Duke of Bavaria duke of Lower Bavaria from 1290 until 1296 as co-regnant with his brothers Otto III and Stephen I.
1326 Reginald I of Guelders Count of Guelders from January 10, 1271 until his death.
1390 John I of Castile King of the Crown of Castile from 1379 until 1390. He was the son of Henry II and of his wife Juana Manuel of Castile. He was the last Spanish monarch to receive a formal coronation
1476 Stefan Branković briefly the despot of the Serbian Despotate between 1458 and 1459, member of the Branković dynasty. He is venerated as a Saint Stefan the Blind by the Serbian Orthodox Church
1529 Colin Campbell 3rd Earl of Argyll a Scottish nobleman and soldier.
1555 Justus Jonas a German Lutheran reformer.
1562 Gabriele Falloppio one of the most important anatomists and physicians of the sixteenth century.
1569 Vladimir of Staritsa the last appanage Russian prince. His complicated relationship with his cousin, Ivan the Terrible, was dramatized in Sergei Eisenstein's movie Ivan the Terrible
1581 Louis Bertrand (saint) known as the "apostle of the Americas". He is venerated as a saint by the Catholic Church
1604 Louis IV Landgrave of Hesse-Marburg the son of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse and his wife Christine of Saxony. After the death of his father in 1567, Hesse was divided among his sons and Louis received Hesse-Marburg including Marburg and Giessen
1622 John II Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg a Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg.
1646 Balthasar Charles Prince of Asturias heir apparent to all the kingdoms, states and dominions of the Spanish monarchy until his death.
1657 Bernabé Cobo a Spanish Jesuit missionary and writer. He played a part in the early history of quinine by his description of cinchona bark; he brought some to Europe on a visit in 1632
1677 Gustav Adolph Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken Count of Saarbrücken and Major General at the Rhine of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation.
1690 Henry FitzRoy 1st Duke of Grafton the illegitimate son of King Charles II by Barbara Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine.
1691 William Sacheverell an English politician who sat in the House of Commons in two periods between 1670 and 1691.
1708 Olympia Mancini Countess of Soissons the second eldest of the five celebrated Mancini sisters, who along with two of their female Martinozzi cousins, were known at the court of King Louis XIV of France as the Mazarinettes because their uncle was Louis XIV's chief minister, Cardinal Mazarin. Olympia was later to become the mother of the famous Austrian general Prince Eugene of Savoy. She also involved herself in various court intrigues including the notorious Poison Affair, which led to her expulsion from France
1709 Barbara Palmer 1st Duchess of Cleveland an English courtesan from the Villiers family and perhaps the most notorious of the many mistresses of King Charles II of England, by whom she had five children, all of whom were acknowledged and subsequently ennobled. Her influence was so great that she has been referred to as "The Uncrowned Queen." Her immediate contemporary was Madame de Montespan, mistress of King Louis XIV of France
1726 Casimir William of Hesse-Homburg a prince of Hesse-Homburg.
1729 Richard Blackmore remembered primarily as the object of satire and as an example of a dull poet. He was, however, a respected physician and religious writer
1742 Alexander von Dönhoff a Prussian lieutenant-general and confidant of King Friedrich Wilhelm I.
1743 Wenzel Lorenz Reiner a Baroque painter who lived and died in Prague, Bohemia.
1771 Jan Klemens Branicki a Polish nobleman, magnate and Hetman, Field Crown Hetman of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth between 1735 and 1752, and Great Crown Hetman between 1752 and 1771. One of the wealthiest Polish magnates in the 17th century, owner of 12 towns, 257 villages and 17 palaces. He was the last male representative of the Branicki family
1793 Jean Joseph Marie Amiot a French Jesuit missionary.
1797 Vilna Gaon a Talmudist, halakhist, kabbalist, and the foremost leader of mitnagdic Jewry of the past few centuries. He is commonly referred to in Hebrew as ha-Gaon he-Chasid mi-Vilna, "the saintly genius from Vilnius"
1799 Pierre Pigneau de Behaine a French Catholic priest best known for his role in assisting Nguyễn Ánh to establish the Nguyễn Dynasty in Vietnam after the Tây Sơn rebellion.
1802 Ferdinand Duke of Parma the Duke of Parma, Plasencia and Guastalla from his father's death on 18 July 1765 until he ceded the duchy to France by the Treaty of Aranjuez on 20 March 1801. He was a member of the Spanish House of Bourbon
1806 Friedrich August Brand an Austrian painter.
1806 Benjamin Banneker a free African American scientist, surveyor, almanac author and farmer. Born in Baltimore County, Maryland, to a free African American woman and a former slave, Banneker had little formal education and was largely self-taught. He is known for being part of a group led by Major Andrew Ellicott that surveyed the borders of the original District of Columbia, the federal capital district of the United States
1807 Mikhail Kheraskov regarded as the most important Russian poet by Catherine the Great and her contemporaries.
1808 John Claiborne a son of Thomas Claiborne and brother of Thomas Claiborne. He was a Representative from Virginia; born in Brunswick County, Virginia, in 1777; pursued academic studies; was graduated from the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia in 1798 and practiced; elected as a Democratic-Republican to the Ninth and Tenth Congresses and served from March 4, 1805, until his death in Brunswick County, Virginia, on October 9, 1808; interment in the family burying ground of Parson Jarratt, Dinwiddie, Virginia
1822 Richard Earlom an English mezzotint engraver.
1824 Jonathan Dayton an American politician from the U.S. state of New Jersey. He was the youngest person to sign the United States Constitution and a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, serving as the fourth Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, and later the U.S. Senate. Dayton was arrested in 1807 for treason in connection with Aaron Burr's conspiracy, he was never put on trial, but his national political career never recovered
1831 Ioannis Kapodistrias a Greek Foreign Minister of the Russian Empire and one of the most distinguished politicians and diplomats of Europe. After a long career in European politics and diplomacy he was elected as the first head of state of independent Greece and he is considered as the founder of the modern Greek State, and the founder of Greek independence
1836 James Saumarez 1st Baron de Saumarez an admiral of the British Royal Navy, notable for his victory at the Battle of Algeciras.
1841 Karl Friedrich Schinkel a Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who also designed furniture and stage sets. Schinkel was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both neoclassical and neogothic buildings
1850 Israel Friedman of Ruzhyn a Hasidic rebbe in 19th-century Ukraine and Austria. Known as Der Heiliger Ruzhiner , he conducted his court with regal pomp and splendor. Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, who was said to be jealous of the Rebbe's wealth and influence, had the Rebbe imprisoned for nearly two years on an unsubstantiated murder charge. After his release, the Rebbe fled to Austria, where he re-established his court in Sadigura, Bukovina , attracted thousands of Hasidim, provided for the Hasidic community in Israel, and inaugurated the construction of the Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue in the Old City of Jerusalem
1854 Carl Gustaf Mannerheim (naturalist) a Finnish entomologist and governor of the Viipuri province in the Grand Duchy of Finland.
1857 Josef Ressel an a German Bohemian forester and inventor who designed one of the first working ship's propellers.
1864 Rudolf Keyser a Norwegian historian, archaeologist and educator.
1867 Carlo Filangieri a Neapolitan soldier and statesman. He was the son of Gaetano Filangieri, a celebrated philosopher and jurist
1867 Ignacy Feliks Dobrzyński a Polish pianist and composer.
1867 Georgi Sava Rakovski a 19th-century Bulgarian revolutionary and writer and an important figure of the Bulgarian National Revival and resistance against Ottoman rule.
1868 Howell Cobb an American political figure. A Southern Democrat, Cobb was a five-term member of the United States House of Representatives and Speaker of the House from 1849 to 1851. He also served as a Secretary of Treasury under President James Buchanan and the 40th Governor of Georgia
1869 Otto Linné Erdmann a German chemist. He was the son of Karl Gottfried Erdmann, the physician who introduced vaccination into Saxony. He was born in Dresden on 11 April 1804. In 1820 he began to attend the medicochirurgical academy of his native place, and in 1822 he entered the University of Leipzig, where in 1827 he became extraordinary professor, and in 1830 ordinary professor of chemistry. This office he held until his death, which happened at Leipzig on 9 October 1869. He was particularly successful as a teacher, and the laboratory established at Leipzig under his direction in 1843 was long regarded as a model institution. As an investigator he is best known for his work on nickel and indigo and other dye-stuffs. With F. Marchand he also carried out a number of determinations of atomic weights. In 1828, in conjunction with F. Werther , he founded the Journal für technische and ökonomische Chemie, which became in 1834 the Journal für praktische Chemie. He was also the author of Über das Nickel , Lehrbuch der Chemie , Grundriss der Waarenkunde , and Über das Studium der Chemie