Born in October

October 7, 13 Drusus Julius Caesar the only child of Roman Emperor Tiberius and his first wife, Vipsania Agrippina. He was also a maternal cousin of the Emperor Caligula, a paternal cousin of the Emperor Claudius and a second cousin of the Emperor Nero
October 30, 39 Julia the Elder the daughter and only biological child of Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire. Augustus subsequently adopted several male members of his close family as sons. Julia resulted from Augustus' second marriage with Scribonia, her birth occurring on the same day as Scribonia's divorce from Augustus, who wished to marry Livia Drusilla
October 24, 51 Domitian Roman emperor from 81 to 96. Domitian was the third and last emperor of the Flavian dynasty
October 15, 70 Virgil an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He is known for three major works of Latin literature, the Eclogues , the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, are sometimes attributed to him
October 1, 208 Alexander Severus Roman Emperor from 222 to 235. Alexander was the last emperor of the Severan dynasty. He succeeded his cousin Elagabalus upon the latter's assassination in 222, and was ultimately assassinated himself, marking the epoch event for the Crisis of the Third Century — nearly fifty years of civil wars, foreign invasion, and collapse of the monetary economy
October 28, 340 Saint Cunera a virgin and martyr. She is first mentioned after the year 1000. She is the patron saint of the Utrecht city Rhenen in the Netherlands, and against cattle and throat diseases
October 10, 425 Archbishop Atticus of Constantinople the archbishop of Constantinople, succeeding Arsacius of Tarsus in March 406. He had been an opponent of John Chrysostom and helped Arsacius of Tarsus depose him, but later became a supporter of him after his death. He rebuilt the small church that was located on the site of the later Hagia Sophia, and was an opponent of the Pelagians, which helped increase his popularity among the citizens of Constantinople
October 13, 467 Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei an emperor of the Northern Wei from September 20, 471 to April 26, 499.
October 14, 530 Antipope Dioscorus a deacon of the Alexandrian and the Roman church from 506. In a disputed election following the death of Pope Felix IV, the majority of electors picked him to be Pope, in spite of Pope Felix's wishes that Boniface succeed him. However, Dioscurus died less than a month after the election, allowing Boniface to be consecrated Pope and Dioscurus branded an Antipope
October 26, 686 Eata of Hexham bishop of Lindisfarne from 678 until 685, and of Hexham from then until his death. He was the first native of Northumbria to take the bishopric of Lindisfarne
October 5, 823 Boniface II Margrave of Tuscany the count and duke of Lucca and first margrave of Tuscany from about 828. He succeeded his father Boniface I in Lucca — in what was an early example of hereditary succession — and extended his power over the region. During his tenure, the bishops of Lucca gradually lost control of the municipal government, which fell to the counts
October 27, 921 Chai Rong the second emperor of imperial China's short-lived Later Zhou during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, reigning from 954 until his death. He succeeded his uncle-in-law Guo Wei, whose surname he had adopted
October 5, 954 Malcolm II of Scotland King of the Scots from 1005 until his death. He was a son of Cináed mac Maíl Coluim; the Prophecy of Berchán says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Máel Coluim Forranach, "the destroyer"
October 1, 961 Artald of Reims twice Archbishop of Reims. He held the post first 931 to 940, when he was displaced by Hugh of Vermandois. He was restored, with the help of Louis IV of France, in 946
October 15, 975 Oberto I an Italian count palatine and margrave and the oldest known member of the Obertenghi family. He was, by heredity, Count of Milan from 951. Otbert's father was Margrave Adalbert, about whom nothing is known other than his name and title
October 12, 1006 Emperor Go-Ichijō the 68th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
October 6, 1008 Menendo González a semi-autonomous Duke of Galicia and Count of Portugal and a dominant figure in the Kingdom of León around the turn of the second millennium. He was the tutor and father-in-law of King Alfonso V from at least 1003. He maintained peaceful diplomatic relations with the Caliphate of Córdoba until 1004, after which there was a state of war. In his last years he had to deal with Viking raids, during one of which he may have been killed
October 28, 1017 Henry III Holy Roman Emperor a member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. He was the eldest son of Conrad II of Germany and Gisela of Swabia. His father made him duke of Bavaria in 1026, after the death of Duke Henry V
October 4, 1032 Sancho VI William of Gascony the Duke of Gascony from 1009 to his death. His reign is most notable for the renewal of Gascons ties with Spain
October 16, 1047 Henry VII Duke of Bavaria the count of Luxembourg from 1026 and duke of Bavaria from 1042 until his death. He was the son of Frederick, count of Moselgau, and possibly Ermentrude of Gleiberg
October 8, 1060 Hugh V of Lusignan the fifth Lord of Lusignan and Lord of Couhé. He succeeded his father, Hugh IV, sometime around 1026
October 22, 1071 William IX Duke of Aquitaine the Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitou between 1086 and his death. He was also one of the leaders of the Crusade of 1101. Though his political and military achievements have a certain historical importance, he is best known as the earliest troubadour — a vernacular lyric poet in the Occitan language — whose work survived
October 18, 1081 Nikephoros Palaiologos a Byzantine general of the 11th century.
October 25, 1102 William Clito the fourteenth Count of Flanders and titular Duke of Normandy. His surname "Clito" was a Latin term equivalent to the Anglo-Saxon "Aetheling", and the Germanic "Adelinus". Both "Clito" and "Atheling" signified "man of royal blood", or the modern equivalent, "prince"
October 18, 1125 Emperor Go-Shirakawa the 77th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1155 through 1158
October 18, 1130 Zhu Xi a Song dynasty Confucian scholar who was the leading figure of the School of Principle and the most influential rationalist Neo-Confucian in China. His contributions to Chinese philosophy including his assigning special significance to the Analects, the Mencius, the Great Learning, and the Doctrine of the Mean , his emphasis on the investigation of things , and the synthesis of all fundamental Confucian concepts, formed the basis of Chinese bureaucracy and government for over 700 years. He has been called the second most influential thinker in Chinese history, after Confucius himself
October 30, 1137 Sergius VII of Naples the thirty-ninth and last duke of Naples. He succeeded his father John VI on the Neapolitan throne in 1120 or 1123 at a time when Roger II of Sicily was rising rapidly in power. When Roger succeeded as duke of Apulia in 1127 and was crowned king in 1130, the fate of Naples hinged on Sergius' relations with the Sicilian court
October 6, 1145 Baldwin (archbishop of Pisa) a Cistercian monk and later Archbishop of Pisa, a correspondent of Bernard of Clairvaux, and a reformer of the Republic of Pisa. Throughout his episcopate, he greatly expanded the authority of his diocese, making it the most powerful institution in Liguria and Sardinia, and notably increased its landholdings
October 14, 1152 Ralph I Count of Vermandois Count of Vermandois. He was son of Hugh I, Count of Vermandois, and Adelaide, Countess of Vermandois and paternal grandson of Henry I of France and while his mother had been heiress to Herbert IV of Vermandois
October 27, 1156 Raymond VI Count of Toulouse count of Toulouse and marquis of Provence from 1194 to 1222. He was also count of Melgueil from 1173 to 1190
October 4, 1160 Alys Countess of the Vexin the daughter of King Louis VII of France and his second wife Constance of Castile.
October 12, 1161 Henry V Duke of Carinthia the margrave of Verona from 1144 until 1151 and the duke of Carinthia from 1144 to his death. According to the contemporary chronicler Otto of Freising, Henry was "a valiant man, experienced in the councils of war"
October 28, 1161 Imar of Tusculum a French cardinal.
October 13, 1162 Eleanor of England Queen of Castile Queen of Castile and Toledo as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile. She was the sixth child and second daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and received her first name as a namesake of her mother
October 8, 1170 Vladimir III Igorevich a Rus' prince. He was the son of Igor Svyatoslavich and was with him during his campaign against the Cumans on 13 April 1185, immortalized in the epic The Tale of Igor's Campaign; he participated in the first battle, wherein he set off ahead of the main group along with Svyatoslav Olgovich of Rylsk and defeated the Cuman forces. However, he was captured in the second battle by Khans Gzak and Konchak. The Tale of Igor’s Campaign describes how, after Igor escaped from captivity, Gzak and Konchak debated whether to kill Vladimir or entice him into marrying a Cuman maiden:
October 19, 1183 Antipope Callixtus III Antipope from September 1168 to 29 August 1178.
October 4, 1189 Gerard de Ridefort Grand Master of the Knights Templar from the end of 1184 until his death in 1189.
October 11, 1196 Saint Meinhard a German canon regular and the first Bishop of Livonia. His life was described in the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia. His body rests in the now-Lutheran Riga Cathedral
October 22, 1197 Emperor Juntoku the 84th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1210 through 1221
October 9, 1200 Isabel Marshal a medieval English countess. She was the wife of both Gilbert de Clare, 4th Earl of Hertford and 5th Earl of Gloucester and Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall. With the former, she was a great grandparent of King Robert the Bruce of Scotland
October 28, 1200 Louis IV Landgrave of Thuringia the Landgrave of Thuringia from 1217 to 1227.
October 9, 1201 Robert de Sorbon a French theologian, the chaplain of Louis IX of France, and founder of the Sorbonne college in Paris.
October 21, 1204 Robert de Beaumont 4th Earl of Leicester an English nobleman, the last of the Beaumont earls of Leicester. He is sometimes known as Robert FitzPernel
October 1, 1207 Henry III of England King of England, Lord of Ireland and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death. The son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, Henry assumed the throne when he was only nine in the middle of the First Barons' War. Cardinal Guala declared the war against the rebel barons to be a religious crusade and Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich in 1217. Henry promised to abide by the Great Charter of 1225, which limited royal power and protected the rights of the major barons. His early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh and then Peter des Roches, who reestablished royal authority after the war. In 1230 the King attempted to reconquer the provinces of France that had once belonged to his father, but the invasion was a debacle. A revolt led by William Marshal's son, Richard, broke out in 1232, ending in a peace settlement negotiated by the Church
October 10, 1213 Frederick II Duke of Lorraine the duke of Lorraine from 1206 to his death, son of Frederick I and Ludmilla, daughter of Mieszko III the Old, of the Piast Dynasty.
October 15, 1218 Hulagu Khan a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. Son of Tolui and the Kerait princess Sorghaghtani Beki, he was a grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of Ariq Böke, Möngke Khan, and Kublai Khan
October 30, 1218 Emperor Chūkyō the 85th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned only months in 1221, and he was not officially listed amongst the emperors until 1870 because of doubts caused by the length of his reign. The Imperial Household Agency recognizes Kujō no misasagi near Tōfuku-ji in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto as his tomb
October 9, 1221 Salimbene di Adam a source for Italian history of the 13th century.
October 18, 1239 Stephen V of Hungary King of Hungary and Croatia between 1270 and 1272, and Duke of Styria from 1258 to 1260. He was the oldest son of King Béla IV and Maria Laskarina. King Béla had his son crowned king at the age of six and appointed him Duke of Slavonia. Still a child, Stephen married Elizabeth, a daughter of a chieftain of the Cumans whom his father settled in the Great Hungarian Plain
October 17, 1253 Ivo of Kermartin Saint Ivo of Kermartin, T.O.S.F. also known Yvo or Ives, as Erwann and as Yves Hélory , was a parish priest among the poor of Louannec, the only one of his station to be canonized in the Middle Ages. He is the patron of Brittany, lawyers and abandoned children. His feast day is 19 May. Poetically, he is referred to as "Advocate of the Poor"