October events in history

October 4, 23 Rebels capture and sack the Chinese capital Chang'an during a peasant rebellion. They kill and decapitate the emperor, Wang Mang, two days later
October 6, 23 Rebels kill and decapitate the Xin dynasty emperor Wang Mang two days after the capital Chang'an is sacked during a peasant rebellion
October 13, 54 Roman Emperor Claudius is poisoned to death under mysterious circumstances. His 17-year-old stepson Nero succeeds him to the Roman throne
October 24, 69 Second Battle of Bedriacum, forces under Antonius Primus, the commander of the Danube armies, loyal to Vespasian, defeat the forces of Emperor Vitellius
October 28, 97 Emperor Nerva is forced by the Praetorian Guard to adopt general Marcus Ulpius Trajanus as his heir and successor
October 14, 222 Pope Callixtus I is killed by a mob in Rome's Trastevere after a 5-year reign in which he had stabilized the Saturday fast three times per year, with no food, oil, or wine to be consumed on those days. Callixtus is succeeded by cardinal Urban I
October 26, 306 Martyrdom of Saint Demetrius of Thessaloniki
October 28, 306 Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor
October 27, 312 Constantine the Great is said to have received his famous Vision of the Cross
October 28, 312 Battle of the Milvian Bridge: Constantine I defeats Maxentius, becoming the sole Roman emperor in the West
October 29, 312 Constantine the Great enters Rome after his victory at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, stages a grand adventus in the city, and is met with popular jubilation. Maxentius' body is fished out of the Tiber and beheaded
October 8, 314 Roman Emperor Licinius is defeated by his colleague Constantine I at the Battle of Cibalae, and loses his European territories
October 18, 320 Pappus of Alexandria, Greek philosopher, observes an eclipse of the Sun and writes a commentary on The Great Astronomer (Almagest)
October 22, 362 The temple of Apollo at Daphne, outside Antioch, is destroyed in a mysterious fire
October 3, 382 Roman Emperor Theodosius I concludes a peace treaty with the Goths and settles them in the Balkans in exchange for military service
October 6, 404 Byzantine Empress Eudoxia has her seventh and last pregnancy which ends in a miscarriage. She is left bleeding and dies of an infection shortly after
October 13, 409 Vandals and Alans cross the Pyrenees and appear in Hispania
October 23, 425 Valentinian III is elevated as Roman emperor at the age of six
October 29, 437 Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II, Eastern Roman Emperor in Constantinople unifying the two branches of the House of Theodosius
October 19, 439 The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, take Carthage in North Africa
October 8, 451 At Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor, the first session of the Council of Chalcedon begins (ends on November 1)
October 22, 451 The Council of Chalcedon adopts the Chalcedonian Creed regarding the divine and human nature of Jesus Christ
October 5, 456 The Visigoths under king Theodoric II, acting on orders of the Roman emperor Avitus, invade Iberia with an army of Burgundians, Franks and Goths, led by the kings Chilperic I and Gondioc. They defeat the Suebi under king Rechiar on the river Urbicus near Astorga (Gallaecia)
October 16, 456 Magister militum Ricimer defeats Emperor Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the Western Roman Empire
October 17, 456 Battle of Placentia: Ricimer, supported by Majorian (comes domesticorum), defeats the Roman usurper Avitus near Piacenza (Northern Italy)
October 28, 456 The Visigoths brutally sack the Suebi's capital of Braga (Portugal), and the town's churches are burnt to the ground
October 25, 473 Emperor Leo I acclaims his grandson Leo II as Caesar of the Byzantine Empire
October 31, 475 Romulus Augustulus is proclaimed Western Roman Emperor
October 23, 501 The Synodus Palmaris, called by Gothic king Theoderic the Great, discharges Pope Symmachus of all charges, thus ending the schism of Antipope Laurentius
October 4, 610 Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor
October 5, 610 Coronation of Byzantine Emperor Heraclius
October 18, 614 King Chlothar II promulgates the Edict of Paris (Edictum Chlotacharii), a sort of Frankish Magna Carta that defend the rights of the Frankish nobles while it excludes Jews from all civil employment in the Frankish Kingdom
October 18, 629 Dagobert I is crowned King of the Franks
October 12, 633 Battle of Hatfield Chase: King Edwin of Northumbria is defeated and killed by the British under Penda of Mercia and Cadwallon of Gwynedd
October 30, 637 Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of the Iron Bridge
October 10, 680 Battle of Karbala: Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is decapitated by forces under Caliph Yazid I. This is commemorated by Muslims as Aashurah
October 31, 683 During the Siege of Mecca, the Kaaba catches fire and is burned down
October 16, 690 Empress Wu Zetian ascends to the throne of the Tang dynasty and proclaims herself ruler of the Chinese Empire
October 27, 710 Saracen invasion of Sardinia
October 10, 732 Battle of Tours: Near Poitiers, France, the leader of the Franks, Charles Martel and his men, defeat a large army of Moors, stopping the Muslims from spreading into Western Europe. The governor of Córdoba, Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, is killed during the battle
October 30, 758 Guangzhou is sacked by Arab and Persian pirates
October 9, 768 Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned Kings of The Franks
October 22, 794 Emperor Kanmu relocates the Japanese capital to Heiankyo (now Kyoto)
October 2, 829 Theophilos (813–842), succeeds his father as Byzantine Emperor
October 5, 869 The Fourth Council of Constantinople is convened to decide about what to do about patriarch Photius of Constantinople
October 27, 939 Æthelstan, the first King of England, died and was succeeded by his half-brother, Edmund I
October 1, 959 Edgar the Peaceful becomes king of all England
October 28, 969 Byzantine general Michael Bourtzes seizes part of Antioch's fortifications. The capture of the city from the Arabs is completed three days later, when reinforcements under the stratopedarches Peter arrive
October 29, 969 Byzantine troops occupy Antioch Syria
October 18, 1009 The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who hacks the Church's foundations down to bedrock