September 1 events in history

462 Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle
717 Siege of Constantinople: The Muslim armada with 1,800 ships, is defeated by the Byzantine navy through the use of Greek fire
1270 King Stephen V of Hungary writes his walk to the antiquum castellum near Miholjanec, where the Sword of Attila was recently discovered
1355 King Tvrtko I of Bosnia writes In castro nostro Vizoka vocatum from the Old town of Visoki
1449 Tumu Crisis – Mongols capture the Emperor of China
1529 The Spanish fort of Sancti Spiritu, the first one built in modern Argentina, is destroyed by natives
1532 Lady Anne Boleyn is made Marquess of Pembroke by her fiancé, King Henry VIII of England
1604 Adi Granth, now known as Guru Granth Sahib, the holy scripture of Sikhs, was first installed at Harmandir Sahib
1644 Battle of Tippermuir: James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose defeats the Earl of Wemyss's Covenanters, reviving the Royalist cause
1715 King Louis XIV of France dies after a reign of 72 years—the longest of any major European monarch
1763 Catherine II of Russia endorses Ivan Betskoy's plans for a Foundling Home in Moscow
1772 The Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa is founded in San Luis Obispo, California
1774 Massachusetts Bay colonists rise up in the bloodless Powder Alarm
1804 Juno, one of the four largest asteroids in the Main Belt, is discovered by the German astronomer Karl Ludwig Harding
1831 The high honor of Order of St. Gregory the Great is established by Pope Gregory XVI of the Vatican State to recognize high support for the Vatican or for the Pope, by a man or a woman, and not necessarily a Roman Catholic
1836 Narcissa Whitman, one of the first English-speaking white women to settle west of the Rocky Mountains, arrives at Walla Walla, Washington
1862 American Civil War: Battle of Chantilly – Confederate Army troops defeat a group of retreating Union Army troops in Chantilly, Virginia
1864 American Civil War: the Confederate Army General John Bell Hood orders the evacuation of Atlanta, ending a four-month siege by General William Tecumseh Sherman
1870 Franco-Prussian War: the Battle of Sedan is fought, resulting in a decisive Prussian victory
1873 Cetshwayo ascends to the throne as king of the Zulu nation following the death of his father Mpande
1878 Emma Nutt becomes the world's first female telephone operator when she is recruited by Alexander Graham Bell to the Boston Telephone Dispatch Company
1880 The army of Mohammad Ayub Khan is routed by the British at the Battle of Kandahar, ending the Second Anglo-Afghan War
1894 Over 400 people die in the Great Hinckley Fire, a forest fire in Hinckley, Minnesota
1897 The Tremont Street Subway in Boston opens, becoming the first underground rapid transit system in North America
1902 A Trip to the Moon, considered one of the first science fiction films, is released in France
1905 Alberta and Saskatchewan join the Canadian confederation
1906 The International Federation of Intellectual Property Attorneys is established
1911 The armored cruiser Georgios Averof is commissioned into the Greek Navy. It now serves as a museum ship
1914 St. Petersburg, Russia, changes its name to Petrograd
1914 The last passenger pigeon, a female named Martha, dies in captivity in the Cincinnati Zoo
1920 The Fountain of Time opens as a tribute to the 100 years of peace between the United States and Great Britain following the Treaty of Ghent
1923 The Great Kantō earthquake devastates Tokyo and Yokohama, killing about 105,000 people
1928 Ahmet Zogu declares Albania to be a monarchy and proclaims himself king
1934 SMJK Sam Tet is founded by Father Fourgs from the St. Michael Church, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia
1939 World War II: Nazi Germany and Slovakia invade Poland, beginning the European phase of World War II
1939 General George C. Marshall becomes Chief of Staff of the United States Army
1939 The Wound Badge for Wehrmacht, SS, Kriegsmarine, and Luftwaffe soldiers is instituted. The final version of the Iron Cross is also instituted on this date
1939 Switzerland mobilizes its forces and the Swiss Parliament elects Henri Guisan to head the Swiss Army (an event that can happen only during war or mobilization)
1939 Adolf Hitler signs an order to begin the systematic euthanasia of mentally ill and disabled people
1951 The United States, Australia and New Zealand sign a mutual defense pact, called the ANZUS Treaty
1952 The Old Man and the Sea, the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Ernest Hemingway, is first published
1958 Iceland expands its fishing zone, putting it into conflict with the United Kingdom, beginning the Cod Wars
1961 The Eritrean War of Independence officially begins with the shooting of the Ethiopian police by Hamid Idris Awate
1967 The Khmer–Chinese Friendship Association is banned in Cambodia
1969 A coup in Libya brings Muammar Gaddafi to power
1969 Trần Thiện Khiêm becomes Prime Minister of South Vietnam under President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu
1970 Attempted assassination of King Hussein of Jordan by Palestinian guerrillas, who attack his motorcade
1972 In Reykjavík, Iceland, American Bobby Fischer beats Russian Boris Spassky to become the world chess champion
1974 The SR-71 Blackbird sets (and holds) the record for flying from New York to London in the time of 1 hour, 54 minutes and 56.4 seconds at a speed of 1,435.587 miles per hour (2,310.353 km/h)
1979 The American space probe Pioneer 11 becomes the first spacecraft to visit Saturn when it passes the planet at a distance of 21,000 kilometres (13,000 mi)