September 12 events in history

372 Sixteen Kingdoms: Jin Xiaowudi, age 10, succeeds his father Jin Jianwendi as Emperor of the Eastern Jin dynasty
1185 Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos brutally put to death in Constantinople
1213 Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Battle of Muret
1229 The Aragonese army under the command of James I of Aragon disembarks at Santa Ponça, Majorca, with the purpose of conquering the island
1309 The First Siege of Gibraltar takes place in the context of the Spanish Reconquista pitting the forces of the Kingdom of Castile against the Emirate of Granada resulting in a Castilian victory
1609 Henry Hudson begins his exploration of the Hudson River while aboard the Halve Maen
1683 Austro-Ottoman War: Battle of Vienna – several European armies join forces to defeat the Ottoman Empire
1814 Battle of North Point: an American detachment halts the British land advance to Baltimore in the War of 1812
1846 Elizabeth Barrett elopes with Robert Browning
1847 Mexican–American War: the Battle of Chapultepec begins
1848 Switzerland becomes a Federal state
1857 The SS Central America sinks about 160 miles east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, drowning a total of 426 passengers and crew, including Captain William Lewis Herndon. The ship was carrying 13–15 tons of gold from the California Gold Rush
1885 Arbroath 36–0 Bon Accord, a world record scoreline in professional Association football
1890 Salisbury, Rhodesia, is founded
1897 Tirah Campaign: Battle of Saragarhi
1906 The Newport Transporter Bridge is opened in Newport, South Wales by Viscount Tredegar
1910 Premiere performance of Gustav Mahler's Symphony No. 8 in Munich (with a chorus of 852 singers and an orchestra of 171 players. Mahler's rehearsal assistant conductor was Bruno Walter)
1919 Adolf Hitler joins the German Workers' Party (later the Nazi Party)
1930 In cricket Wilfred Rhodes ends his 1110-game first-class career by taking 5 for 95 for H.D.G. Leveson Gower's XI against the Australians
1933 Leó Szilárd, waiting for a red light on Southampton Row in Bloomsbury, conceives the idea of the nuclear chain reaction
1938 Adolf Hitler demands autonomy and self-determination for the Germans of the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia
1940 Cave paintings are discovered in Lascaux, France
1940 An explosion at the Hercules Powder Company plant in Kenvil, New Jersey kills 51 people and injures over 200
1942 World War II: RMS Laconia, carrying civilians, Allied soldiers and Italian POWs is torpedoed off the coast of West Africa and sinks with a heavy loss of life
1942 World War II: First day of the Battle of Edson's Ridge during the Guadalcanal Campaign. U.S. Marines protecting Henderson Field on Guadalcanal are attacked by Imperial Japanese Army forces
1943 World War II: Benito Mussolini, dictator of Italy, is rescued from house arrest on the Gran Sasso in Abruzzi, by German commando forces led by Otto Skorzeny
1944 World War II: The liberation of Serbia from Nazi Germany continues. Bajina Bašta in western Serbia is among those liberated cities. Near Trier, American troops enter Germany for the first time
1948 Invasion of the State of Hyderabad by the Indian Army on the day after the Pakistani leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah's death
1952 Strange occurrences, including a monster sighting, take place in Flatwoods, West Virginia
1953 U.S. Senator and future President John Fitzgerald Kennedy marries Jacqueline Lee Bouvier at St. Mary's Church in Newport, Rhode Island
1958 Jack Kilby demonstrates the first integrated circuit
1959 Premiere of Bonanza, the first regularly scheduled TV program presented in color
1959 The Soviet Union launches a large rocket, Lunik II, at the moon
1961 The African and Malagasy Union is founded
1964 Canyonlands National Park is designated as a National Park
1966 Gemini 11, the penultimate mission of NASA's Gemini program, and the current human altitude record holder (except for the Apollo lunar missions)
1970 Dawson's Field hijackings: Palestinian terrorists blow up three hijacked airliners in Jordan, continuing to hold the passengers hostage in various undisclosed locations in Amman
1974 Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, 'Messiah' of the Rastafari movement, is deposed following a military coup by the Derg, ending a reign of 58 years
1974 Juventude Africana Amílcar Cabral is founded in Guinea-Bissau
1977 South African anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko dies in police custody
1979 Indonesia is hit with an earthquake that measures 8.1 on the Richter scale
1980 Military coup in Turkey
1983 A Wells Fargo depot in West Hartford, Connecticut, United States, is robbed of approximately US$7 million by Los Macheteros
1983 The USSR vetoes a United Nations Security Council Resolution deploring the Soviet shooting down of a Korean civilian jetliner on September 1
1984 Dwight Gooden sets the baseball record for strikeouts in a season by a rookie with 246, previously set by Herb Score in 1954. Gooden's 276 strikeouts that season, pitched in 218 innings, set the current record
1988 Hurricane Gilbert devastates Jamaica; it turns towards Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula 2 days later, causing an estimated $5 billion in damage
1990 The two German states and the Four Powers sign the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in Moscow, paving the way for German reunification
1992 NASA launches Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-47 which marked the 50th shuttle mission. On board are Mae Carol Jemison, the first African-American woman in space, Mamoru Mohri, the first Japanese citizen to fly in a US spaceship, and Mark Lee and Jan Davis, the first married couple in space
1992 Abimael Guzmán, leader of the Shining Path, is captured by Peruvian special forces; shortly thereafter the rest of Shining Path's leadership fell as well
1994 Frank Eugene Corder crashes a single-engine Cessna 150 into the White House's south lawn, striking the West wing and killing himself