September 13 events in history

335 Emperor Constantine the Great consecrated the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem
379 Yax Nuun Ayiin I is coronated as 15 Ajaw of Tikal
533 Belisarius of the Byzantine Empire defeats Gelimer and the Vandals at the Battle of Ad Decimum, near Carthage, North Africa
1229 Ögedei Khan is proclaimed Khagan of the Mongol Empire in Kodoe Aral, Khentii: Mongolia
1501 Michelangelo begins work on his statue of David
1504 Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand issue a Royal Warrant for the construction of a Royal Chapel (Capilla Real) to be built
1541 After three years of exile, John Calvin returns to Geneva to reform the church under a body of doctrine known as Calvinism
1584 San Lorenzo del Escorial Palace in Madrid is finished
1609 Henry Hudson reaches the river that would later be named after him – the Hudson River
1743 Great Britain, Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia sign the Treaty of Worms
1759 Battle of the Plains of Abraham: the British defeat the French near Quebec City in the Seven Years' War, known in the United States as the French and Indian War
1782 American Revolutionary War: Franco-Spanish troops launch the unsuccessful "grand assault" during the Great Siege of Gibraltar
1788 The Philadelphia Convention sets the date for the first presidential election in the United States, and New York City becomes the country's temporary capital
1791 King Louis XVI of France accepts the new constitution
1808 Finnish War: In the Battle of Jutas, Swedish forces under Lieutenant General Georg Carl von Döbeln beat the Russians, making von Döbeln a Swedish war hero
1812 War of 1812: A supply wagon sent to relieve Fort Harrison is ambushed in the Attack at the Narrows
1814 In a turning point in the War of 1812, the British fail to capture Baltimore. During the battle, Francis Scott Key composes his poem "Defence of Fort McHenry", which is later set to music and becomes the United States' national anthem
1843 The Greek Army rebels (OS date: September 3) against the autocratic rule of king Otto of Greece, demanding the granting of a constitution
1847 Mexican–American War: Six teenage military cadets known as Niños Héroes die defending Chapultepec Castle in the Battle of Chapultepec. American troops under General Winfield Scott capture Mexico City in the Mexican–American War
1848 Vermont railroad worker Phineas Gage survives a 3-foot (0.91 m)-plus iron rod being driven through his head; the reported effects on his behavior and personality stimulate thinking about the nature of the brain and its functions
1850 First ascent of Piz Bernina, the highest summit of the eastern Alps
1862 American Civil War: Union soldiers find a copy of Robert E. Lee's battle plans in a field outside Frederick, Maryland. It is the prelude to the Battle of Antietam
1882 Anglo-Egyptian War: The Battle of Tel el-Kebir is fought
1898 Hannibal Goodwin patents celluloid photographic film
1899 Henry Bliss is the first person in the United States to be killed in an automobile accident
1899 Mackinder, Ollier and Brocherel make the first ascent of Batian (5,199 m – 17,058 ft), the highest peak of Mount Kenya
1900 Filipino resistance fighters defeat a small American column in the Battle of Pulang Lupa, during the Philippine–American War
1906 First flight of a fixed-wing aircraft in Europe
1914 World War I: The Battle of Aisne begins between Germany and France
1914 World War I: South African troops open hostilities in German south-west Africa (Namibia) with an assault on the Ramansdrift police station
1922 The final act of the Greco-Turkish War, the Great Fire of Smyrna, commences
1923 Following a military coup in Spain, Miguel Primo de Rivera takes over, setting up a dictatorship
1933 Elizabeth McCombs becomes the first woman elected to the New Zealand Parliament
1935 Rockslide near Whirlpool Rapids Bridge ends the International Railway (New York–Ontario)
1942 World War II: Second day of the Battle of Edson's Ridge in the Guadalcanal Campaign. U.S. Marines successfully defeated attacks by the Imperial Japanese Army with heavy losses for the Japanese forces
1943 The Municipal Theatre of Corfu is destroyed during an aerial bombardment by Luftwaffe
1948 Deputy Primer Minister of India Vallabhbhai Patel ordered the Army to move into the Hyderabad to integrate it with Indian Union
1948 Margaret Chase Smith is elected senator, and becomes the first woman to serve in both the U.S. House of Representatives and the United States Senate
1953 Nikita Khrushchev is appointed General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
1956 The dike around the Dutch polder East Flevoland is closed
1956 The IBM 305 RAMAC is introduced, the first commercial computer to use disk storage
1964 South Vietnamese Generals Lâm Văn Phát and Dương Văn Đức fail in a coup attempt against General Nguyễn Khánh
1968 Albania leaves the Warsaw Pact
1971 State police and National Guardsmen storm New York's Attica Prison to quell a prison revolt
1971 People's Republic of China: Chairman Mao Zedong's second in command and successor Marshal Lin Biao flees the country via plane after the failure of alleged coup against Mao. The plane crashes in Mongolia, killing all aboard
1979 South Africa grants independence to the "homeland" of Venda (not recognised outside South Africa)
1985 Super Mario Bros. is released in Japan for the NES, which starts the Super Mario series of platforming games
1987 Goiânia accident: A radioactive object is stolen from an abandoned hospital in Goiânia, Brazil, contaminating many people in the following weeks and causing some to die from radiation poisoning
1988 Hurricane Gilbert is the strongest recorded hurricane in the Western Hemisphere, later replaced by Hurricane Wilma in 2005 (based on barometric pressure)
1989 Largest anti-Apartheid march in South Africa, led by Desmond Tutu