September 14 events in history

81 Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus
326 Helena of Constantinople discovers the True Cross and the Holy Sepulchre (Jesus's tomb) in Jerusalem
629 Emperor Heraclius enters Constantinople in triumph after his victory over the Persian Empire
786 "Night of the three Caliphs": Harun al-Rashid becomes the Abbasid caliph upon the death of his brother al-Hadi. Birth of Harun's son al-Ma'mun
1180 Battle of Ishibashiyama in Japan
1607 Flight of the Earls from Lough Swilly, Donegal, Ireland
1682 Bishop Gore School, one of the oldest schools in Wales, is founded
1741 George Frideric Handel completes his oratorio Messiah
1752 The British Empire adopts the Gregorian calendar, skipping eleven days (the previous day was September 2)
1763 Seneca warriors defeat British forces at the Battle of Devil's Hole during Pontiac's War
1791 The Papal States lose Avignon to the French Empire
1808 Finnish War: Russians defeat the Swedes in the bloody Battle of Oravais
1812 Napoleonic Wars: The French Grande Armée enters Moscow. The Fire of Moscow begins as soon as Russian troops leave the city
1814 The poem Defence of Fort McHenry is written by Francis Scott Key. The poem is later used as the lyrics of The Star-Spangled Banner
1829 The Ottoman Empire signs the Treaty of Adrianople with Russia, thus ending the Russo-Turkish War
1846 Jang Bahadur and his brothers massacre about 40 members of the Nepalese palace court
1847 Mexican–American War: Winfield Scott captures Mexico City
1862 American Civil War: The Battle of South Mountain, part of the Maryland Campaign, is fought
1901 President of the United States William McKinley dies after an assassination attempt on September 6, and is succeeded by Theodore Roosevelt
1917 Russia is officially proclaimed a republic
1939 World War II: The Estonian military boards the Polish submarine ORP Orzeł in Tallinn, sparking a diplomatic incident that the Soviet Union will later use to justify the annexation of Estonia
1940 Ip massacre: The Hungarian Army, supported by local Hungarians, kill 158 Romanian civilians in Ip, Sălaj, a village in Northern Transylvania, an act of ethnic cleansing
1944 World War II: Maastricht becomes the first Dutch city to be liberated by allied forces
1954 In a top secret nuclear test, a Soviet Tu-4 bomber drops a 40 kiloton atomic weapon just north of Totskoye village
1958 The first two German post-war rockets, designed by the German engineer Ernst Mohr, reach the upper atmosphere
1959 The Soviet probe Luna 2 crashes onto the Moon, becoming the first man-made object to reach it
1960 The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is founded
1960 Congo Crisis: With CIA help, Mobutu Sese Seko seizes power in a military coup, suspending parliament and the constitution
1969 The US Selective Service selects September 14 as the First Draft Lottery Date
1975 The first American saint, Elizabeth Ann Seton, is canonized by Pope Paul VI
1979 Afghan President Nur Muhammad Taraki is assassinated upon the order of Hafizullah Amin, who becomes the new president
1982 President-elect of Lebanon, Bachir Gemayel, is assassinated
1984 Joe Kittinger becomes the first person to fly a gas balloon alone across the Atlantic Ocean
1985 Penang Bridge, the longest bridge in Malaysia, connecting the island of Penang to the mainland, opens to traffic
1987 The Toronto Blue Jays set a record for the most home runs in a single game, hitting 10 of them
1992 The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina declares the breakaway Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia to be illegal
1994 The Major League Baseball season is canceled because of a strike
1995 Body Worlds opens in Tokyo, Japan
1998 Telecommunications companies MCI Communications and WorldCom complete their $37 billion merger to form MCI WorldCom
1999 Kiribati, Nauru and Tonga join the United Nations
2000 Microsoft releases Windows ME
2001 Historic National Prayer Service held at Washington National Cathedral for victims of the September 11 attacks. A similar service is held in Canada on Parliament Hill, the largest vigil ever held in the nation's capital
2003 In a referendum, Estonia approves joining the European Union
2007 Late-2000s financial crisis: The Northern Rock bank experiences the first bank run in the United Kingdom in 150 years
2008 All 88 people on board Aeroflot Flight 821 are killed when the plane crashes on approach to Perm Airport