Born on September 15

767 Saichō a Japanese Buddhist monk credited with founding the Tendai school in Japan, based around the Chinese Tiantai tradition he was exposed to during his trip to China beginning in 804. He founded the temple and headquarters of Tendai at Enryaku-ji on Hiei near Kyoto. He is also said to have been the first to bring tea to Japan. After his death, he was awarded the posthumous title of Dengyō Daishi
786 Al-Ma'mun an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. He succeeded his brother al-Amin who was killed during the siege of Baghdad
1254 Marco Polo a Venetian merchant traveller whose travels are recorded in Livres des merveilles du monde , a book that introduced Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned the mercantile trade from his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, who travelled through Asia, and met Kublai Khan. In 1269, they returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time. The three of them embarked on an epic journey to Asia, returning after 24 years to find Venice at war with Genoa; Marco was imprisoned and dictated his stories to a cellmate. He was released in 1299, became a wealthy merchant, married, and had three children. He died in 1324 and was buried in the church of San Lorenzo in Venice
1486 Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa a German magician, occult writer, theologian, astrologer, and alchemist.
1505 Mary of Hungary (governor of the Netherlands) queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia as the wife of King Louis II, and was later Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands.
1533 Catherine of Austria Queen of Poland Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania, being the last consort of King Sigismund II Augustus.
1563 Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst a princess of Anhalt by birth and Electress of Brandenburg by marriage.
1580 Charles Annibal Fabrot a French jurisconsult.
1603 John Jonston a Polish scholar and physician, descended from Scottish nobility and closely associated with the Polish magnate family of the Leszczyńskis.
1603 Tokugawa Yorifusa a Japanese daimyo of the early Edo period.
1607 Archduke Charles of Austria (1607–1632) infante of Spain, the second son of Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria.
1613 François de La Rochefoucauld (writer) a noted French author of maxims and memoirs. His is a clear-eyed, worldly view of human conduct that indulges in neither condemnation nor sentimentality. Born in Paris on the Rue des Petits Champs, at a time when the royal court was oscillating between aiding the nobility and threatening it, he was considered an exemplar of the accomplished 17th-century nobleman. Until 1650, he bore the title of Prince de Marcillac
1624 Francesco Provenzale an Italian Baroque composer and teacher. Notably Provenzale was the teacher of famed castrato 'il cavaliere Nicolo Grimaldi '
1649 Titus Oates an English perjurer who fabricated the "Popish Plot", a supposed Catholic conspiracy to kill King Charles II.
1666 Sophia Dorothea of Celle the repudiated wife of George I of Great Britain and mother of George The union with her first cousin was an arranged marriage of state, instigated by the machinations of his mother, Sophia of Hanover. She is best remembered for her alleged affair with Philip Christoph von Königsmarck that led to her being imprisoned in the Castle of Ahlden for the last thirty years of her life
1675 Vakhtang VI of Kartli a Georgian monarch of the royal Bagrationi dynasty. He ruled the East Georgian Kingdom of Kartli in the time of kingdom's vassalage at the hands of Persia from 1716 to 1724. One of the most important and extraordinary statesman of the early 18th Georgia, he is known as a notable legislator, scholar, critic, translator and poet. His reign was terminated by the Ottoman invasion, which forced Vakhtang into exile to the Russian Empire. With Russia still short of reaching its Imperial zenith, Vakhtang was unable to get the tsar’s support for his kingdom and instead had to permanently stay with his northern neighbors for his own safety. On his way to a diplomatic mission sanctioned by Empress Anna, he fell ill and died in southern Russia in 1737, never reaching Georgia
1676 Stanisław Poniatowski (1676–1762) a Polish-Lithuanian military commander, diplomat, and noble. Throughout his career, Poniatowski served in various military offices, and was a general in both the Swedish and Polish-Lithuanian militaries. He also held numerous civil positions, including those of podstoli of Lithuania and Grand Treasurer of the Lithuanian army in 1722, voivode of the Masovian Voivodeship in 1731, regimentarz of the Crown Army in 1728, and castellan of Kraków in 1752. Throughout his lifetime, he served in many starost positions
1690 Ignazio Prota an Italian composer and music educator. He was the father of composer Tommaso Prota and the grandfather of composer Gabriele Prota
1715 Jean-Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval a French artillery officer and engineer who revolutionized French cannon, creating a new production system that allowed lighter, more uniform guns without sacrificing range. His Gribeauval system superseded the de Vallière system. These guns proved essential to French military victories during the Napoleonic wars. Gribeauval is credited as the earliest known advocate for interchangeability of gun parts. He is thus one of the principal influences on the later development of interchangeable manufacture
1719 Friedrich Christian Meuschen a German diplomat and conchologist born in Hanau. He was the son of theologian Johann Gerhard Meuschen
1721 Kazimierz Poniatowski a Polish Szlachcic, podkomorzy wielki koronny , generał wojsk koronnych. Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, awarded on August 3, 1744 in Warsaw
1736 Jean Sylvain Bailly a French astronomer, mathematician, freemason, and political leader of the early part of the French Revolution. He presided over the Tennis Court Oath, served as the mayor of Paris from 1789 to 1791, and was ultimately guillotined during the Reign of Terror
1737 Jacob Philipp Hackert a landscape painter from Brandenburg, who did most of his work in Italy.
1739 Juan de Villanueva a Spanish architect. Alongside Ventura Rodríguez, Villanueva is the best known architect of Spanish Neoclassicism
1756 Karl Philipp Moritz a German author, editor and essayist of the Sturm und Drang, late enlightenment, and classicist periods, influencing early German Romanticism as well. He led a life as a hatter's apprentice, teacher, journalist, literary critic, professor of art and linguistics, and member of both of Berlin's academies
1759 Cornelio Saavedra a military officer and statesman from the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. He was instrumental in the May Revolution, the first step of Argentina's independence from Spain, and was appointed president of the Primera Junta
1760 Bogislav Friedrich Emanuel von Tauentzien a Prussian general of the Napoleonic Wars.
1765 Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage a Portuguese Neoclassic poet, writing at the beginning of his career under the pen name Elmano Sadino.
1768 James Barron an officer in the United States Navy. He served in the Quasi War, the Barbary Wars, during which time he commanded a number of famous ships, including the USS Essex and the USS President. As Commander of the frigate USS Chesapeake, he was court-martialed for his actions in 1807, which led to the surrender of his ship to the British. After criticism from some fellow officers, the resulting controversy led Barron to a duel with Stephen Decatur, one of the officers who presided over his court-martial. Suspended from command, he pursued commercial interests in Europe during the War of 1812. Barron finished his naval career on shore duty, becoming the Navy's senior officer in 1839
1777 Henryk Ludwik Lubomirski a Polish noble and a magnate.
1787 Guillaume-Henri Dufour a Swiss army officer, bridge engineer and topographer. He served under Napoleon I and held the office of General to lead the Swiss forces to victory against the Sonderbund. He presided over the First Geneva Convention which established the International Red Cross. He was founder and president of the Swiss Federal Office of Topography from 1838 to 1865
1788 Gerard Brandon an American political leader who twice served as Governor of Mississippi during its early years of statehood.
1789 James Fenimore Cooper a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. His historical romances of frontier and Indian life in the early American days created a unique form of American literature. He lived most of his life in Cooperstown, New York, which was established by his father William. Cooper was a lifelong member of the Episcopal Church and in his later years contributed generously to He attended Yale University for three years, where he was a member of the Linonian Society, but was expelled for misbehaviour. Before embarking on his career as a writer he served in the U.S. Navy as a Midshipman which greatly influenced many of his novels and other writings. He is best remembered as a novelist who wrote numerous sea-stories and the historical novels known as the Leatherstocking Tales. Among naval historians Cooper's works on the early U.S. Navy have been well received, but they were sometimes criticized by his contemporaries. Among his most famous works is the Romantic novel The Last of the Mohicans, often regarded as his masterpiece
1800 Paul Frederick Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin ruled as Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 1837 to 1842.
1808 John Hutton Balfour a Scottish botanist. Balfour became a Professor of Botany, first at the University of Glasgow in 1841, moving to Edinburgh University and also becoming Regius Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and Her Majesty's Botanist in 1845. He held these posts until his retirement in 1879. Balfour's sister, Magdelene Balfour, married William F. Browne , the well known phrenologist and asylum reformer
1809 Ludwig Preller a German philologist and antiquarian.
1811 Charles de Morny Duke of Morny a French statesman. He was the natural son of Hortense de Beauharnais and Charles Joseph, Comte de Flahaut, and therefore half-brother of Emperor Napoleon III
1813 Adolphe Joanne a French geographical writer and author of travel books.
1814 Ferdinand von Arnim a German architect and watercolour-painter. He was a student of Karl Friedrich Schinkel and Ludwig Persius who mainly worked in Berlin and Potsdam
1815 Halfdan Kjerulf a Norwegian composer.
1818 Aleksandr Potapov a Russian statesman.
1819 Cyprien Tanguay a French Canadian priest and historian.
1819 Jules Pasdeloup a French conductor.
1821 Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Jessen a German botanist.
1821 Frederick Heiden a general of infantry in the Imperial Russian Army. He served as the Governor-General of Finland 1881–1898. Count van Heiden's 17-year office in the Grand Duchy of Finland encompassed the entire reign of Alexander III of Russia, who appointed him at the start of his own reign, to succeed the courtly and diplomatic Count Nikolay Adlerberg, and four first years of reign of Nicholas II of Russia
1823 Emanuel Larsen a Danish painter who specialized in marine painting.
1824 Joseph Hergenröther a German Church historian and canonist, and the first Cardinal-Prefect of the Vatican Archives.
1825 John Locke (Canadian politician) a merchant and Senator from Nova Scotia, Canada. He was a Liberal member of the Senate from October 23, 1867 to December 12, 1873 and was summoned to the Senate by Royal Proclamation
1826 Theodor Piderit a German writer.
1828 Alexander Butlerov a Russian chemist, one of the principal creators of the theory of chemical structure , the first to incorporate double bonds into structural formulas, the discoverer of hexamine , and the discoverer of the formose reaction.