Born on September 16

16 Julia Drusilla a member of the Roman imperial family, the second daughter and fifth child to survive infancy of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder, and sister of the Emperor Caligula. Drusilla also had two sisters and two other brothers. She was also a great-granddaughter of the Emperor Augustus, grand-niece of the Emperor Tiberius, niece of the Emperor Claudius, and aunt of the Emperor Nero
1074 Al-Musta'li the ninth Fatimid Caliph, and believed by the Mustaali Ismaili sect to be the 19th imam. Al-Musta‘li was made caliph by the vizier Malik al-Afdal Shahanshah as the successor to al-Mustansir. By and large, al-Musta‘li was subordinate to Malik al-Afdal. One complication with the selection of al-Musta‘li was that his older brother Nizar was considered by Nizar's supporters to be the rightful heir to the throne. This led to a power struggle within the Fatimids, and although Nizar's revolt was unsuccessful , the break from the rules of succession caused a schism amongst the Ismaili Shia. In Seljuk Syria and Persia, the Nizari sect developed, one branch of which is known to history as the Hashshashin. Supporters of Musta'li's imamate became known as the Mustaali sect
1295 Elizabeth de Clare the heiress to the lordships of Clare, Suffolk in England and Usk in Wales. She was the youngest of the three daughters of Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford and Joan of Acre, and sister of Gilbert de Clare, who later succeeded as the 7th Earl. Born in Acre, she is commonly referred to as Elizabeth de Burgh, due to her first marriage to John de Burgh. Her two successive husbands were Theobald II de Verdun and Roger D'Amory
1390 Karigaila a son of Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his second wife Uliana of Tver. He became the ruler of Mstsislaw after he captured it from the Principality of Smolensk. He is sometimes mistaken for his brother Constantine, who was the founder of the House of Czartoryski
1462 Pietro Pomponazzi an Italian philosopher. He is sometimes known by his Latin name, Petrus Pomponatius
1507 Jiajing Emperor the 11th Ming dynasty Emperor of China who ruled from 1521 to 1567. Born Zhu Houcong, he was the former Zhengde Emperor's cousin. His father, Zhu Youyuan , the Prince of Xing, was the fourth son of the Cheng-hua emperor and the eldest son of three sons born to the emperor's concubine, Lady Shao
1557 Jacques Mauduit a French composer of the late Renaissance. He was one of the most innovative French composers of the late 16th century, combining voices and instruments in new ways, and importing some of the grand polychoral style of the Venetian School from Italy; he also composed a famous Requiem for the funeral of Pierre de Ronsard
1579 Samuel Coster a Dutch playwright.
1615 Heinrich Bach a German organist, composer and a member of the Bach family.
1625 Gregorio Barbarigo an Italian cardinal, diplomat, and scholar.
1626 Leopold Wilhelm Margrave of Baden-Baden an Imperial Field Marschal.
1651 Engelbert Kaempfer a German naturalist and physician known for his tour of Russia, Persia, India, South-East Asia, and Japan between 1683 and 1693. He wrote two books about his travels. Amoenitatum Exoticarum, published in 1712, is important for its medical observations and the first extensive description of Japanese plants. His History of Japan, published posthumously in 1727, was the chief source of Western knowledge about the country throughout the 18th century
1654 Philippe Avril a Jesuit explorer of the Far East. He was born at Angoulême, France on 16 September 1654
1658 John Dennis (dramatist) an English critic and dramatist.
1666 Antoine Parent a French mathematician, born at Paris and died there, who wrote in 1700 on analytical geometry of three dimensions. His works were collected and published in three volumes at Paris in 1713
1678 Henry St John 1st Viscount Bolingbroke an English politician, government official and political philosopher. He was a leader of the Tories, and supported the Church of England politically despite his antireligious views and opposition to theology. In 1715 he supported the Jacobite rebellion of 1715 which sought to overthrow the new king George Escaping to France he became foreign minister for the Pretender. He was attainted for treason, but reversed course and was allowed to return to England in 1723. He is best known as the philosopher of the Country Party
1685 Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt a German physician, naturalist and geographer. He was born in Danzig and studied medicine in Jena and Halle, obtained his doctorate degree in the latter in 1713 and settled as a medical doctor in Danzig. In 1716, he came into contact with Russian emperor Peter the Great. By decree of November 5, 1718, Peter gave Messerschmidt the task to ”collect rarities and medicinal plants” from Siberia. Messerschmidt set out in 1720 on his exploration – the first by a naturalist in this terra incognita, which came to last for seven years. He made numerous observations related to ethnology, zoology and botany and also excavated the first known fossil mammoth remains. Messerschmidt used two simple utensils for collecting data and artefacts, written diary notes and boxes, establishing a tradition for naturalist exploration to last for a century. In Tobolsk, Messerschmidt met the Swedish lieutenant colonel Philip Johan von Strahlenberg, who had been taken prisoner at the Battle of Poltava and exiled to Siberia. Strahlenberg accompanied Messerschmidt during several expeditions and later published some of Messerschmidt’s observations. Messerschmidt explored lands all the way to Argun east of Lake Baikal. The journey, however, exhausted him, and he returned to Saint Petersburg in February 1728. He never became a member of the Academy of Sciences. He died in poverty in 1735
1703 Guillaume-François Rouelle a French chemist and apothecary. In 1754 he introduced the concept of a base into chemistry, as a substance which reacts with an acid to give it solid form
1704 Louis de Jaucourt a French scholar and the most prolific contributor to the Encyclopédie. He wrote about 18,000 articles on subjects including physiology, chemistry, botany, pathology, and political history, or about 25% of the entire encyclopedia, all done voluntarily. In the generations after the Encyclopédie's, mainly due to his aristocratic background, his legacy was largely overshadowed by the more bohemian Denis Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and others, but by the mid-20th century more scholarly attention was being paid to him
1716 Angelo Maria Amorevoli a leading Italian tenor in Baroque opera.
1722 Gabriel Christie (British Army officer) a British Army General from Scotland, who settled in Montreal after the French and Indian War. Following the British Conquest of New France, he invested in land and became one of the largest landowners in the British Province of Quebec
1725 Nicolas Desmarest a French geologist and contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers.
1736 Johannes Nikolaus Tetens a German-Danish philosopher, statistician and scientist.
1744 Fabrizio Ruffo an Italian cardinal and politician, who led the popular anti-republican Sanfedismo movement.
1745 Mikhail Kutuzov a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire. He served as one of the finest military officers and diplomats of Russia under the reign of three Romanov Tsars: Catherine II, Paul I and Alexander His military career was closely associated with the rising period of Russia from the end of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century. Kutuzov contributed much to the military history of Russia and is considered to have been one of the best Russian generals under the reign of Catherine He took part in the suppression of the Bar Confederation's uprising, in three of the Russo-Turkish Wars and in the Napoleonic War, including two major battles at Austerlitz and the battle of Borodino
1746 Georges Louis Marie Dumont de Courset a French botanist and agronomist. Born near Boulogne, he studied in Paris and showed an aptitude for music and drawing
1775 Christian Friedrich Schwägrichen a German botanist specializing in the field of bryology.
1777 Auguste-Jean-Gabriel de Caulaincourt a French cavalry commander who rose to the rank of general during the First French Empire. He was the son of French general and senator Gabriel-Louis de Caulaincourt and younger brother of general and diplomat Armand Augustin Louis de Caulaincourt
1777 Nathan Mayer Rothschild a London-based Ashkenazi Jewish banker and financier and one of five sons of the second-generation of the Rothschild banking dynasty. He was born in Frankfurt am Main, the fourth child of Mayer Amschel Rothschild and Gutle Schnapper
1779 Samuel D. Ingham a U.S. Congressman and U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Andrew Jackson
1782 Daoguang Emperor the eighth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1820 to 1850. His reign was marked by "external disaster and internal rebellion," that is, by the First Opium War, and the beginning of the Taiping Rebellion which nearly brought down the dynasty. The historian Jonathan Spence characterizes Daoguang as a “well meaning but ineffective man," who promoted officials who "presented a purist view even if they had nothing to say about the domestic and foreign problems surrounding the dynasty."
1792 James Francis Stephens an English entomologist and naturalist. He is known for his 12 volume Illustrations of British Entomology and the Manual of British Beetles
1796 Jean-Baptiste Bouillaud a French physician born in Bragette, now part of Garat, Charente. Bouillaud was an early advocate in regard to the localization of cerebral functions
1797 Anthony Panizzi a naturalised British librarian of Italian birth and an Italian patriot.
1805 Nestor Roqueplan a French writer, journalist, and theatre director.
1812 Robert Fortune a Scottish botanist, plant hunter and traveller, best known for introducing tea plants from China to India. Robert Fortune was born in Scotland on 16 September 1812, at Kelloe, Berwickshire
1816 Charles Thomas Newton a British archaeologist. He was made KCB in 1887
1818 Francis Seymour Haden an English surgeon, best known as an etcher.
1823 Mihailo Obrenović III Prince of Serbia Prince of Serbia from 1839 to 1842 and again from 1860 to 1868. His first reign ended when he was deposed in 1842, and his second when he was assassinated in 1868
1823 Francis Parkman an American historian, best known as author of The Oregon Trail: Sketches of Prairie and Rocky-Mountain Life and his monumental seven-volume France and England in North America. These works are still valued as historical sources and as literature. He was also a leading horticulturist, briefly a Professor of Horticulture at Harvard University and author of several books on the topic
1825 Simeon Bavier a Swiss politician, member of the Swiss Federal Council.
1826 Ernst I Duke of Saxe-Altenburg a duke of Saxe-Altenburg. He was the first son of Georg, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg and Marie Luise of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. In 1853 he succeeded his father as Duke of Saxe-Altenburg. He was of a retiring disposition and he took little active part in running the country. After a reign that lasted fifty five years, he died without a living direct male heir; because of this, he was succeeded by his nephew, Ernst
1827 Jean Albert Gaudry born at St Germain-en-Laye, and was educated at the Collège Stanislas de Paris.
1828 Abraham Kuenen a Dutch Protestant theologian, the son of an apothecary.
1829 Achille Empéraire a French painter.
1830 Patrick Francis Moran the third Roman Catholic Archbishop of Sydney and the first Australian cardinal.
1832 George Washington Custis Lee the eldest son of Robert Lee and Mary Anna Custis Lee. His grandfather—George Washington Custis—was the step-grandson and adopted son of George Washington. He served as a Confederate general in the American Civil War, primarily as an aide-de-camp to President Jefferson Davis, and succeeded his father as president of Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Virginia
1835 Howard Saunders a British businessman, who later in life became a noted ornithologist, specialising in gulls and terns.
1837 Pedro V of Portugal King of Portugal from 1853 to 1861.
1838 James J. Hill a Canadian-American railroad executive. He was the chief executive officer of a family of lines headed by the Great Northern Railway, which served a substantial area of the Upper Midwest, the northern Great Plains, and Pacific Northwest. Because of the size of this region and the economic dominance exerted by the Hill lines, Hill became known during his lifetime as The Empire Builder