Born on September 17

397 Archbishop Nectarius of Constantinople the archbishop of Constantinople from AD 381 until his death, the successor to Saint Gregory Nazianzus.
456 Remistus a general of the Western Roman Empire, commander-in-chief of the army under Emperor Avitus.
879 Charles the Simple the King of Western Francia from 898 until 922 and the King of Lotharingia from 911 until 919–23. He was a member of the Carolingian dynasty
995 Ibn al-Nadim a Muslim scholar of Persian origin and bibliographer. He is famous as the author of the Kitāb al-Fihrist. It is, in his own words "an Index of the books of all nations, Arabs and non-Arabs alike, which are extant in the Arabic language and script, on every branch of knowledge; comprising information as to their compilers and the classes of their authors, together with the genealogies of those persons, the dates of their birth, the length of their lives, the times of their death, the places to which they belonged, their merits and their faults, since the beginning or every science that has been invented down to the present epoch : namely, the year 377 of the Hijra."
1174 Pietro di Miso Italian cardinal. He was elevated to the cardinalate by Pope Adrian IV in the consistory of February 1158. Initially he was cardinal-deacon of Eustachio, but in 1166 he was promoted to the order of cardinal-priests and received titulus San Lorenzo in Damaso. After the double papal election in 1159 he supported the obedience of Pope Alexander III and served as his legate in Hungary. He signed the papal bulls between April 24, 1158 and July 17, 1174
1192 Minamoto no Sanetomo the third shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Sanetomo was the second son of the founder of the Kamakura shogunate Minamoto no Yoritomo, his mother was Hōjō Masako, and his older brother was the second Kamakura shogun Minamoto no Yoriie.
1552 Pope Paul V Pope from 16 May 1605 to his death in 1621.
1605 Francesco Sacrati an Italian composer of the Baroque era, who played an important role in the early history of opera. He wrote for the Teatro Novissimo in Venice as well as touring his operas throughout Italy. His most famous piece is La finta pazza , said to be the first opera ever performed in France. The manuscript of this work was long thought to be lost but a touring edition of the manuscript was discovered by musicologist Lorenzo Bianconi in 1984. Some of the music bears striking similarities to the score of Monteverdi's L'incoronazione di Poppea, prompting scholars to speculate that Sacrati had a part in composing the surviving version of that opera. The United States premiere of La finta pazza, and first performance outside Europe, occurred in April 2010 at Yale University
1615 Samuel de Sorbiere best known for his promotion of the works of Thomas Hobbes and Pierre Gassendi, in whose view of physics he placed his support, though unable to refute René Descartes, but who developed a reputation in his own day for a truculent and disputatious nature. Sorbière is regarded often by his position on ethics and disclosure about medical mistakes. In 1672 Sorbière considered the idea of being honest and upfront about a mistake having been made in medicine but thought that it might seriously jeopardise medical practice and concluded that it "would not catch on"
1630 Ranuccio II Farnese Duke of Parma the sixth Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1646 until his death nearly 50 years later.
1639 Hans Herr born in Zürich, Switzerland, a descendant of the Knight, Hugo Herr. He joined the Swiss Brethren and became a bishop. He was the first Mennonite bishop to emigrate to America
1674 Ernest Augustus Duke of York and Albany the younger brother of George I of Great Britain. Ernest was a soldier, and served with some distinction under Emperor Leopold I during the Nine Years' War and the War of Spanish Succession. In 1715 he became Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück
1677 Stephen Hales an English clergyman who made major contributions to a range of scientific fields including botany, pneumatic chemistry and physiology. He invented several devices, including a ventilator, a pneumatic trough and a surgical forceps for the removal of bladder stones. He was also a philanthropist and wrote a popular tract on alcoholic intemperance
1687 Durastante Natalucci an Italian historian who specialized in history of Trevi, in Umbria.
1688 Mikhail Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin a Russian diplomat. He was the son of Pyotr Bestuzhev and elder brother of the more famous Aleksey Bestuzhev
1717 Agui a Manchu noble general for the Qing dynasty. As the only son of Akdun, he was a scion of a noble family who led a number of important Manchu military operations, including several of the "Ten Great Campaigns"
1721 Johann Adolf Schlegel a German poet and clergyman.
1730 Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben a Prussian-born military officer. He served as inspector general and Major General of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He is credited with being one of the fathers of the Continental Army in teaching them the essentials of military drills, tactics, and disciplines. He wrote Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States, the book that served as the standard United States drill manual until the War of 1812. He served as General George Washington's chief of staff in the final years of the war
1731 Jacques-Christophe Valmont de Bomare a French botanist and naturalist. He wrote an influential encyclopedia of natural history in the 1760s: Dictionnaire raisonné universel d’histoire naturelle
1734 Jean-Baptiste Le Prince an important French etcher and painter. Le Prince first studied painting techniques in his native Metz. He then travelled to Paris around 1750 and became a leading student of the great painter, François Boucher. Le Prince's early paintings in both theme and style are comparable to his master's rococo techniques
1734 Elizabeth Canning an English maidservant who claimed to have been kidnapped and held against her will in a hayloft for almost a month. She ultimately became central to one of the most famous English criminal mysteries of the 18th century
1739 John Rutledge an American statesman, lawyer, and judge. He was a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress and the Continental Congress, President and then Governor of South Carolina during the American Revolution, a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1787, an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, and second Chief Justice. He was the elder brother of Edward Rutledge, a signatory of the Declaration of Independence. Like nearly all important men in South Carolina at the time, he was a slaveowner
1740 John Cartwright (political reformer) an English naval officer, Nottinghamshire militia major and prominent campaigner for parliamentary reform. He subsequently became known as the Father of Reform. His younger brother Edmund Cartwright became famous as the inventor of the steam power loom
1740 John Hamilton Mortimer a British figure and landscape painter and printmaker, known for romantic paintings set in Italy, works depicting conversations, and works drawn in the 1770s portraying war scenes, similar to those of Salvator Rosa.
1743 Marquis de Condorcet a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist whose Condorcet method in voting tally selects the candidate who would beat each of the other candidates in a run-off election. Unlike many of his contemporaries, he advocated a liberal economy, free and equal public education, constitutionalism, and equal rights for women and people of all races. His ideas and writings were said to embody the ideals of the Age of Enlightenment and rationalism, and remain influential to this day. He died a mysterious death in prison after a period of flight from French Revolutionary authorities
1751 Yury Neledinsky-Meletsky a soldier, senator and secretary of state of the Russian Empire and a Russian poet.
1755 William Cathcart 1st Earl Cathcart born at Petersham, and educated at Eton.
1764 Berek Joselewicz a Jewish-Polish merchant and a colonel of the Polish Army during the Kościuszko Uprising. Joselewicz commanded the first Jewish military formation in modern history
1764 John Goodricke an English amateur astronomer. He is best known for his observations of the variable star Algol in 1782
1767 Henri-Montan Berton a French composer, teacher, and writer, and the son of Pierre Montan Berton.
1771 Johann August Apel a German writer and jurist. Apel was born and died in Leipzig
1772 Anne Françoise Elisabeth Lange a French actress of the Comédie-Française and a 'Merveilleuse' of the French Directory. Her stage name was Mademoiselle Lange
1773 Alexandre de Laborde a French antiquary, liberal politician and writer, a member of the Académie des Sciences morales et politiques , under the rubric political economy.
1773 Jonathan Alder an American pioneer, and the first white settler in Madison County, Ohio. As a young child living in Virginia, Alder was kidnapped by Shawnee Indians, and later adopted by a Mingo chief in the Ohio Country. He lived with the Native Americans for many years before returning to the white community
1783 Nadezhda Durova a woman who, while disguised as a man, became a decorated soldier in the Russian cavalry during the Napoleonic wars. She was the first known female officer in the Russian military. Her memoir, The Cavalry Maiden, is a significant document of its era because few junior officers of the Napoleonic wars published their experiences, and because it is one of the earliest autobiographies in the Russian language
1795 Saverio Mercadante an Italian composer, particularly of operas. While Mercadante may not have retained the international celebrity of Gaetano Donizetti or Gioachino Rossini beyond his own lifetime, he composed as impressive a number of works as either; and his development of operatic structures, melodic styles and orchestration contributed significantly to the foundations upon which Giuseppe Verdi built his dramatic technique
1797 Heinrich Kuhl a German naturalist and zoologist.
1799 Duchess Marie of Württemberg a daughter of Duke Alexander of Württemberg and Antoinette of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She was Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from 1832 to 1844 as the second wife of Duke Ernest As such, she was the stepmother of Prince Albert, consort of Queen Victoria
1800 Franklin Buchanan an officer in the United States Navy who became the only full admiral in the Confederate Navy during the American Civil War, and commanded the ironclad CSS Virginia.
1802 Amédée Méreaux a French musicologist, pianist, and composer. He was the author of Les clavecinistes de 1637 à 1790, written from 1864 to 1867, which had essays on the composers it mentioned. His grandfather, Nicolas-Jean Lefroid de Méreaux , was a composer of operas and oratorios, while his father, Jean-Nicolas Lefroid de Méreaux, was an organist and pianist and was a composer of piano sonatas. He was a friend of Frédéric Chopin
1804 Maximilian Perty a German naturalist and entomologist. He was a professor of zoology and comparative anatomy at the University of Bern. His first name is sometimes spelled as "Joseph"
1811 August Blanche a Swedish journalist, novelist, and a Socialist statesman.
1814 Ferenc Pulszky a Hungarian politician and writer.
1819 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius the first president of the South African Republic, and also compiled the constitution of the Republic.
1820 Émile Augier a French dramatist. He was the thirteenth member to occupy seat 1 of the Académie française on 31 March 1857
1820 Champfleury a French art critic and novelist, a prominent supporter of the Realist movement in painting and fiction.
1820 Earl Van Dorn a career United States Army officer, fighting with distinction during the Mexican-American War and against several tribes of Native Americans. He also served as a Confederate general during the American Civil War, noted for his defeats at Pea Ridge and Corinth in 1862, and his murder by a civilian in the spring of 1863
1821 Arthur Saint-Léon famous for creating the choreography of the ballet Coppélia.
1825 Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II an American politician and jurist from Mississippi. A United States Representative and Senator, he also served as United States Secretary of the Interior in the first administration of President Grover Cleveland, as well as an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court
1826 Bernhard Riemann an influential German mathematician who made lasting contributions to analysis, number theory, and differential geometry, some of them enabling the later development of general relativity.