Born on September 18

18 Giuseppe Cavanna an Italian football goalkeeper. Born in Vercelli, he played in the 1920s and 1930s for Pro Vercelli and S.S.C. Napoli. He played 151 matches in Serie In the 1934-35 season he had the lowest goals conceded per game average for Napoli, a record which stood until Dino Zoff broke it in the 1970-71 season
53 Trajan Roman emperor from 98 AD until his death. Officially declared by the Senate as optimus princeps , Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the greatest military expansion in Roman history, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death. He is also known for his philanthropic rule, overseeing extensive public building programs and implementing social welfare policies, which earned him his enduring reputation as the second of the Five Good Emperors who presided over an era of peace and prosperity in the Mediterranean world
1344 Marie of Valois Duchess of Bar the sixth child and second daughter of John II of France and Bonne of Bohemia.
1434 Eleanor of Portugal Holy Roman Empress Empress of the Holy Roman Empire. A Portuguese infanta , daughter of King Edward of Portugal and his wife Leonor of Aragon, she was the consort of Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick III, and the mother of Emperor Maximilian I
1446 Ōuchi Masahiro a member of the Ōuchi family and general in the Ōnin War, serving Yamana Sōzen. He battled numerous times with Yamana's rival, Hosokawa Katsumoto, at one point commanding 20,000 men and 2,000 boats, moving his troops by land as well as by sea. These battles took place mostly in Kyoto, but also across the Hosokawa family's holdings, and other territories
1495 Louis X Duke of Bavaria Duke of Bavaria , together with his older brother William IV, Duke of Bavaria. His parents were Albert IV and Kunigunde of Austria, a daughter of Emperor Frederick III
1535 Henry Brandon 2nd Duke of Suffolk an English nobleman, the son of the 1st Duke of Suffolk, by his fourth wife, the suo jure 12th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby.
1539 Louis Gonzaga Duke of Nevers an Italian-French dignitary and diplomat in France. He was the third child of Frederick II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, and Margaret Palaeologina
1574 Claudio Achillini an Italian philosopher, theologian, mathematician, poet, and jurist.
1587 Francesca Caccini an Italian composer, singer, lutenist, poet, and music teacher of the early Baroque era. She was also known by the nickname "La Cecchina", originally given to her by the Florentines and probably a diminutive of "Francesca". She was the daughter of Giulio Caccini. Her stage work, La liberazione di Ruggiero, has been widely considered the first opera by a woman composer
1606 Zhang Xianzhong a leader of a peasant revolt from Yan'an, Shaanxi Province and he later conquered Sichuan in the 17th century. His rule in Sichuan was brief and he was killed by the invading Manchu army. He is commonly associated with the massacres in Sichuan which depopulated the region, however the extent of his killings is disputed
1643 Gilbert Burnet a Scottish theologian and historian, and Bishop of Salisbury. He was fluent in Dutch, French, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. Burnet was respected as a cleric, a preacher, and an academic, as well as a writer and historian. He was associated with the Whig party
1676 Eberhard Louis Duke of Württemberg the tenth duke of Württemberg, from 1692 until 1733.
1677 Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt (1677–1708) a prince of Hesse-Darmstadt and Russian General.
1684 Johann Gottfried Walther a German music theorist, organist, composer, and lexicographer of the Baroque era.
1690 Charles Louis Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck a Lieutenant General in the Prussian Army and Governor of Reval in the Governorate of Estonia.
1709 Samuel Johnson an English writer who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer. Johnson was a devout Anglican and committed Tory, and has been described as "arguably the most distinguished man of letters in English history". He is also the subject of "the most famous single work of biographical art in the whole of literature": James Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson
1711 Ignaz Holzbauer a composer of symphonies, concertos, operas, and chamber music, and a member of the Mannheim school. His aesthetic style is in line with that of the Sturm und Drang "movement" of German art and literature
1718 Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (governor) an Archduchess of Austria and a Princess of Lorraine, the younger sister of Empress Maria Theresa.
1728 Richard Mique a neoclassical French architect born in Lorraine. He is most remembered for his picturesque hamlet, the Hameau de la Reine — not particularly characteristic of his working style — for Marie Antoinette in the Petit Trianon gardens within the estate of Palace of Versailles
1733 George Read (U.S. statesman) an American lawyer and politician from New Castle in New Castle County, Delaware. He was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a Continental Congressman from Delaware, a delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, President of Delaware, and a member of the Federalist Party, who served as U.S. Senator from Delaware and Chief Justice of Delaware
1739 Jean-Jacques Lagrenée a French history painter and engraver. With his elder brother Louis-Jean-François Lagrenée, he stayed in Russia then at the Académie de Rome
1750 Tomás de Iriarte y Oropesa a Spanish neoclassical poet.
1752 Adrien-Marie Legendre a French mathematician. Legendre made numerous contributions to mathematics. Well-known and important concepts such as the Legendre polynomials and Legendre transformation are named after him
1758 Louis Friant born in the village of Morlancourt, 8 km south of Albert near the river Somme. The village would later suffer the misfortune of lying along the Western Front trench-lines of World War I
1761 François Just Marie Raynouard a French dramatist and linguist.
1765 Pope Gregory XVI born Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari EC, reigned from 2 February 1831 to his death in 1846. He had adopted the name Mauro upon entering the religious order of the Camaldolese
1779 Joseph Story an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1811 to 1845. He is most remembered for his opinions in Martin Hunter's Lessee and The Amistad case, and especially for his magisterial Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States, first published in 1833. Dominating the field in the 19th century, this work is a cornerstone of early American jurisprudence. It is the second comprehensive treatise on the provisions of the U.S. Constitution and remains a critical source of historical information about the forming of the American republic and the early struggles to define its law
1779 Ludolph Christian Treviranus a German botanist born in Bremen. He was a younger brother to naturalist Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus
1786 Christian VIII of Denmark the King of Denmark from 1839 to 1848 and, as Christian Frederick, King of Norway in 1814. He was the eldest son of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway and Duchess Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, born in 1786 at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen. His paternal grandparents were King Frederick V of Denmark and his second wife, Duchess Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
1786 Justinus Kerner a German poet, practicing physician, and medical writer.
1798 Edvard Bergenheim the Archbishop of Turku and the spiritual head of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland between 1850 and 1884.
1803 Leon Sapieha a Polish noble , politician and statesman.
1805 Francis Cornwall Sherman served as Mayor of Chicago, Illinois three terms for the Democratic Party.
1806 Heinrich Laube born at Sprottau in Prussian Silesia.
1809 Armand Barbès a French Republican revolutionary and a fierce and steadfast opponent of the July monarchy. He is remembered as a man whose life centers on two days:
1812 Herschel Vespasian Johnson an American politician. He was the 41st Governor of Georgia from 1853 to 1857 and the Vice Presidential nominee of the Douglas wing of the Democratic Party in the 1860 US presidential election
1819 Léon Foucault a French physicist best known for his demonstration of the Foucault pendulum, a device demonstrating the effect of the Earth's rotation. He also made an early measurement of the speed of light, discovered eddy currents, and is credited with naming the gyroscope
1824 Richard Doyle (illustrator) a notable illustrator of the Victorian era. His work frequently appeared, amongst other places, in Punch magazine; he drew the cover of the first issue, and designed the magazine's masthead, a design that was used for over a century
1838 Anton Mauve a Dutch realist painter who was a leading member of the Hague School. He signed his paintings 'A. Mauve' or with a monogrammed 'A.M.'. A master colorist, he was a very significant early influence on his cousin-in-law Vincent van Gogh
1839 William J. McConnell the third Governor of Idaho from 1893 until 1897. Prior to that he represented Idaho as one of its first United States Senators after statehood
1840 Franz Xaver Kraus a German Catholic priest, and ecclesiastical and art historian.
1843 Charles Valentine Riley a British-born American entomologist and artist.
1844 Spencer Trask an American financier, philanthropist, and venture capitalist. Beginning in the 1870s, Trask began investing and supporting entrepreneurs, including Thomas Edison's invention of the electric light bulb and his electricity network. In 1896 he reorganized the New York Times, becoming its majority shareholder and chairman
1845 Hermann Bollé an architect of Franco-German origin who practiced in Croatia.
1846 Bernhard Moritz Carl Ludwig Riedel a German surgeon who was a native of Teschentin, Grossherzogtum Mecklenburg.
1846 Richard With a Norwegian ship captain, businessman and politician for the Liberal Left Party. He is known as the founder of Vesteraalens Dampskibsselskab and Hurtigruten
1848 Francis Grierson a composer and pianist, who also wrote under the pen name of Francis Grierson.
1849 Martha M. Place the first woman to die in the electric chair. She was executed on March 20, 1899 at Sing Sing Correctional Facility for the murder of her stepdaughter Ida Place
1850 Miķelis Krogzemis a Latvian poet and prominent member of the Young Latvians movement.