Died on September 19

68 Felix and Constantia Saints Felix and Constanza were a brother and sister from the Roman city of Nuceria Alfaterna, and were martyred by the emperor Nero in 68 AD.
690 Theodore of Tarsus the eighth Archbishop of Canterbury, best known for his reform of the English Church and establishment of a school in Canterbury.
1123 Emperor Taizu of Jin Emperor of Jin from January 28, 1115 to September 19, 1123. He was the chieftain of the Jurchen Wanyan tribe, founder and first emperor of the Jin Dynasty. He was the younger brother of Wanyan Wuyashu. Aguda was given the temple name Taizu
1356 Peter I Duke of Bourbon the second Duke of Bourbon, from 1342 to his death.
1356 Walter VI Count of Brienne Count of Brienne, Conversano, and Lecce, and titular Duke of Athens. Walter was the son of Walter V, Duke of Athens, and Jeanne de Châtillon , the daughter of the Count of Porcien, Constable to King Philip IV of France
1356 Robert of Durazzo the third son of John, Duke of Durazzo and Agnes de Périgord.
1528 Francesco Silvestri an Italian Dominican theologian. He wrote a notable commentary on Thomas of Aquinas's Summa contra gentiles, and served as Master General of his order from 1525 until his death
1572 Archduchess Barbara of Austria born in Vienna to Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. From 1547, in Innsbruck with her sisters Magdalena, Margareta, Helena and Johanna, she received a deeply religious upbringing
1580 Catherine Willoughby 12th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby an English noblewoman living at the royal courts of King Henry VIII, King Edward VI and later, Queen Elizabeth She was the fourth wife of Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, who acted as her legal guardian during his third marriage to Mary Tudor, the younger sister of Henry VIII. Her second husband was Richard Bertie, a member of her household. Following Charles Brandon's death in 1545, it was rumoured that King Henry had considered marrying Catherine as his seventh wife, while he was still married to his sixth wife, Catherine Parr, who was Catherine's close friend
1581 Frans Pourbus the Elder a Flemish Renaissance painter.
1589 Jean-Antoine de Baïf a French poet and member of the Pléiade.
1610 Frederick IV Elector Palatine of the Rhine , only surviving son of Louis VI, Elector Palatine and Elisabeth of Hesse, called "Frederick the Righteous".
1668 Jan Miense Molenaer a Dutch Golden Age genre painter whose style was a precursor to Jan Steen's work during Dutch Golden Age painting. He shared a studio with his wife, Judith Leyster, also a genre painter, as well as a portraitist and painter of still-life. Both Molenaer and Leyster may have been pupils of the successful Dutch painter, Frans Hals
1668 William Waller an English Parliamentary general during the English Civil War. He received his education at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, and served in the Venetian army and in the Thirty Years' War. He received a knighthood in 1622 after taking part in Vere's expedition to the Electorate of the Palatinate
1678 Christoph Bernhard von Galen prince-bishop of Münster. He was born into a noble Westphalian family
1686 John George I Duke of Saxe-Eisenach
1692 Giles Corey accused of witchcraft along with his wife Martha Corey during the Salem Witch Trials. After being arrested for witchcraft, Corey refused to enter a plea of guilty or not guilty. He was subjected to pressing in an effort to force him to plea, but instead died after two days
1710 Ole Rømer a Danish astronomer who in 1676 made the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light. In scientific literature alternative spellings such as "Roemer", "Römer", or "Romer" are common
1719 Shah Jahan II Mughal emperor for a brief period in 1719. He succeeded his short-lived brother Rafi Ul-Darjat in that year, being proclaimed Badshah by the Syed Brothers
1736 Theophan Prokopovich an archbishop and statesman in the Russian Empire. The origin of Prokopovich is unclear: although he was born in Kiev, his parents were from Smolensk. He elaborated and implemented Peter the Great's reform of the Russian Orthodox Church. One of the founding fathers of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokopovich wrote much religious verse and some of the most enduring sermons in the Russian language
1761 Pieter van Musschenbroek a Dutch scientist. He was a professor in Duisburg, Utrecht, and Leiden, where he held positions in mathematics, philosophy, medicine, and astrology. He is credited with the invention of the first capacitor in 1746: the Leyden jar. He performed pioneering work on the buckling of compressed struts. Musschenbroek was also one of the first scientists to provide detailed descriptions of testing machines for tension, compression, and flexure testing. An early example of a problem in dynamic plasticity was described in the 1739 paper
1785 Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain an Infanta of Spain and the youngest daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese. She was the wife of Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia whom she married in 1750. She was the mother of the last three mainline Kings of Sardinia
1793 Dmitry Mikhailovich Golitsyn a Russian diplomat from the Golitsyns family. From 1761 to 1792 he was Russian ambassador to Austria
1796 François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers a French general of the Revolutionary Wars.
1797 Lazare Hoche a French soldier who rose to be general of the Revolutionary army. He is best known for his defeat of Royalist forces in Brittany
1802 Princess Luisa of Naples and Sicily a Neapolitan and Sicilian princess and the wife of the third Habsburg Grand Duke of Tuscany.
1810 Gabriel de Avilés 2nd Marquis of Avilés a Spanish military officer and colonial administrator in America. He was governor of Chile, viceroy of Río de la Plata, and viceroy of Peru
1812 Mayer Amschel Rothschild believed to have become the wealthiest family in human history. Referred to as the "founding father of international finance," Rothschild was ranked seventh on the Forbes magazine list of "The Twenty Most Influential Businessmen of All Time" in 2005
1818 Olof Swartz a Swedish botanist and taxonomist. He is best known for his taxonomic work and studies into pteridophytes. He attended the University of Uppsala where he studied under Carolus Linnaeus the Younger and received his doctorate in 1781
1827 Abram Combe a British utopian socialist and Christian social reformer, an associate of Robert Owen and a major figure in the early co-operative movement.
1827 Morten Thrane Brünnich a Danish zoologist and mineralogist.
1843 Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis a French mathematician, mechanical engineer and scientist. He is best known for his work on the supplementary forces that are detected in a rotating frame of reference. See the Coriolis Effect. Coriolis was the first to coin the term "work" for the transfer of energy by a force acting through a distance
1848 Felix Lichnowsky a son of the historian Eduard Lichnowsky who had written a history of the Habsburg family.
1853 Charles Adam a British naval officer who served during the Napoleonic Wars. He later commanded the royal yacht, Royal Sovereign, and was the Member of Parliament for Clackmannanshire and Kinross-shire. He held the office of First Naval Lord three times. In that capacity he dealt ably with the economies of a peacetime budget, provided naval support for the expulsion of Muhammad Ali's forces from Syria in 1840 and ensured technological progress continued. He was also the father of William Patrick Adam, a colonial administrator and Liberal politician
1862 Princess Dorothea of Courland a Baltic German noblewoman. Her mother was Dorothea von Medem, Duchess of Courland, and although her mother's husband, Duke Peter von Biron, acknowledged her as his own, her true father might be Polish statesman Aleksander Batowski, thus making her half-Polish. For a long time, she accompanied the French statesman Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, whereas she was the separated wife of his nephew, Edmond de Talleyrand-Périgord
1864 Robert E. Rodes one of the youngest Confederate generals in the American Civil War, and the first of Robert Lee's divisional commanders not trained at West Point. His division led Stonewall Jackson's devastating surprise attack at the Battle of Chancellorsville; Jackson, on his deathbed, promoted Rodes to major general. Rodes then served in the corps of Richard Ewell at the Battle of Gettysburg and in the Overland Campaign, before that corps was sent to the Shenandoah Valley under Jubal Early, where Rodes was killed at the Third Battle of Winchester
1866 Christian Hermann Weisse a German Protestant religious philosopher.
1868 William Sprague (Michigan) a minister and politician in the U.S. state of Michigan.
1881 James A. Garfield Abram Garfield served as the 20th President of the United States , after completing nine consecutive terms in the U.S. House of Representatives
1891 Joseph Petzval a mathematician, inventor, and physicist best known for his work in optics. He was born in the town of Zipser Bela in the Kingdom of Hungary
1893 Alexander Tilloch Galt a politician and a father of Canadian Confederation.
1895 Julia Princess of Battenberg the wife of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine, the mother of Alexander, Prince of Bulgaria, and ancestress to the current generations of the British and the Spanish royal families.
1897 Kornel Ujejski a Polish poet, patriot and political writer of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary.
1898 George Grey a soldier, explorer, Governor of South Australia, twice Governor of New Zealand, Governor of Cape Colony , the 11th Premier of New Zealand and a writer.
1898 Brynjulf Bergslien a noted Norwegian sculptor.
1902 Marie Henriette of Austria the second Queen consort of the Belgians. She was married to King Leopold II of Belgium
1902 Masaoka Shiki a Japanese poet, author, and literary critic in Meiji period Japan. Shiki is regarded as a major figure in the development of modern haiku poetry. He also wrote on reform of tanka poetry
1903 Ernst Oppert a Jewish businessman from Germany best known for his unsuccessful attempt in 1867 to remove the remains of the father of regent Yi Ha-eung from their grave in order to use them to blackmail the regent into removing the Korean trade barriers.
1903 Aliye Sultan an Ottoman princess the daughter of Sultan Murad V and his wife Resan Hanımefendi, herself the daughter of Ömer Bey and his wife Fatma Hanım.
1905 Thomas John Barnardo a philanthropist and founder and director of homes for poor children, born in Dublin. From the foundation of the first Barnardo's home in 1870 to the date of Barnardo’s death, nearly 100,000 children had been rescued, trained and given a better life