September 2 events in history

421 Galla Placidia, wife of the Emperor Constantius III, becomes a widow for the second time when he dies suddenly of an illness
1192 The Treaty of Jaffa is signed between Richard I of England and Saladin, leading to the end of the Third Crusade
1649 The Italian city of Castro is completely destroyed by the forces of Pope Innocent X, ending the Wars of Castro
1666 The Great Fire of London breaks out and burns for three days, destroying 10,000 buildings including St Paul's Cathedral
1752 Great Britain adopts the Gregorian calendar, nearly two centuries later than most of Western Europe
1789 The United States Department of the Treasury is founded
1792 During what became known as the September Massacres of the French Revolution, rampaging mobs slaughter three Roman Catholic Church bishops, more than two hundred priests, and prisoners believed to be royalist sympathizers
1806 A massive landslide destroys the town of Goldau, Switzerland, killing 457
1807 The Royal Navy bombards Copenhagen with fire bombs and phosphorus rockets to prevent Denmark from surrendering its fleet to Napoleon
1811 The University of Oslo is founded as The Royal Fredericks University, after Frederick VI of Denmark and Norway
1833 Oberlin College is founded by John Jay Shipherd and Philo P. Stewart in Oberlin, Ohio
1856 The Tianjing Incident takes place in Nanjing, China
1859 A solar super storm affects electrical telegraph service
1862 American Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln reluctantly restores Union General George B. McClellan to full command after General John Pope's disastrous defeat at the Second Battle of Bull Run
1864 American Civil War: Union forces enter Atlanta, Georgia, a day after the Confederate defenders flee the city, ending the Atlanta Campaign
1867 Mutsuhito, Emperor Meiji of Japan, marries Masako Ichijō. The Empress consort is thereafter known as Lady Haruko. Since her death in 1914, she is called by the posthumous name Empress Shōken
1870 Franco-Prussian War: Battle of Sedan – Prussian forces take Napoleon III of France and 100,000 of his soldiers prisoner
1885 Rock Springs massacre: in Rock Springs, Wyoming, 150 white miners, who are struggling to unionize so they could strike for better wages and work conditions, attack their Chinese fellow workers killing 28, wounding 15 and forcing several hundred more out of town
1898 Battle of Omdurman – British and Egyptian troops defeat Sudanese tribesmen and establish British dominance in Sudan
1901 Vice President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt utters the famous phrase, "Speak softly and carry a big stick" at the Minnesota State Fair
1912 Arthur Rose Eldred is awarded the first Eagle Scout award of the Boy Scouts of America
1935 Labor Day Hurricane of 1935: a large hurricane hits the Florida Keys killing 423
1939 World War II: following the start of the invasion of Poland the previous day, the Free City of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) is annexed by Nazi Germany
1945 World War II: Combat ends in the Pacific Theater: the Instrument of Surrender of Japan is signed by Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu and accepted aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay
1945 Vietnam declares its independence, forming the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
1946 The interim government of India is formed, headed by Jawaharlal Nehru as Vice President with the powers of a Prime Minister
1957 President Ngô Đình Diệm of South Vietnam becomes the first foreign head of state to make a state visit to Australia
1958 United States Air Force C-130A-II is shot down by fighters over Yerevan in Armenia when it strays into Soviet airspace while conducting a sigint mission. All crew members are killed
1960 The first election of the Parliament of the Central Tibetan Administration, in history of Tibet. The Tibetan community observes this date as the Democracy Day
1963 CBS Evening News becomes U.S. network television's first half-hour weeknight news broadcast, when the show is lengthened from 15 to 30 minutes
1970 NASA announces the cancellation of two Apollo missions to the Moon, Apollo 15 (the designation is re-used by a later mission), and Apollo 19
1990 Transnistria is unilaterally proclaimed a Soviet republic; the Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev declares the decision null and void
1992 An earthquake in Nicaragua kills at least 116 people
1998 Swissair Flight 111 crashes near Peggys Cove, Nova Scotia. All 229 people on board are killed
1998 The UN's International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda finds Jean-Paul Akayesu, the former mayor of a small town in Rwanda, guilty of nine counts of genocide
2013 The new eastern span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge opened to traffic, being the widest bridge in the world