Born on September 20

2 Vasil Mzhavanadze the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Georgian SSR from September 1953 to September 28, 1972 and a member of the CPSU's Politburo from June 29, 1957 to December 18, 1972. Dismissed after a corruption scandal, he was replaced by Eduard Shevardnadze
524 Kan B'alam I a ruler of the Maya city of Palenque.
601 Ali the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, ruling over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661. A son of Abu Talib, Ali was also the first male who accepted Islam. Sunnis consider Ali the fourth and final of the Rashidun , while Shias regard Ali as the first Imam after Muḥammad, and consider him and his descendants the rightful successors to Muhammad, all of whom are members of the Ahl al-Bayt, the household of Muhammad. This disagreement split the Ummah into the Sunni and Shi`i branches
1161 Emperor Takakura the 80th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1168 through 1180
1486 Arthur Prince of Wales Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester and Duke of Cornwall as the eldest son and heir apparent of Henry VII of England and his wife, Elizabeth of York—daughter of Edward IV—and his birth thus cemented the union between the House of Tudor and the House of York. He was their eldest child and was born months after their marriage. Arthur was viewed by contemporaries as the great hope of the newly established House of Tudor, as his birth symbolised the end of the Wars of the Roses, during which his great-uncle Richard III, the final Yorkist king, had died in battle
1503 Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski a Polish Renaissance scholar, humanist and theologian, called "the father of Polish democracy." His book De Republica emendanda was widely read and praised across most of Renaissance Europe.
1586 John Ballard an English Jesuit priest executed for being involved in an attempt to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England in the Babington Plot.
1593 Gottfried Scheidt a German composer and organist.
1599 Christian the Younger of Brunswick a German Protestant military leader during the Thirty Years' War. During the war, he earned a reputation as a dangerous fanatic
1608 Jean-Jacques Olier a French Catholic priest and the founder of the Sulpicians. He helped to establish the Société Notre-Dame de Montréal, which organized the settlement of the colony of New France, now eastern Canada
1685 Giuseppe Matteo Alberti an Italian Baroque composer and violinist.
1711 Frederick August I Duke of Oldenburg the son of Christian August, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp and his wife Margravine Albertine Friederike of Baden-Durlach.
1720 Sir Robert Pigot 2nd Baronet a British Army officer during the American Revolutionary War.
1739 Darya Petrovna Saltykova a Russian lady in waiting, socialite and noble and Dame of the Order of Catherine's first degree. She was the sister of the lady in waiting Princess Nataliya Petrovna Chernysheva, and in 1769 married to Field Marshal Count Ivan Petrovich Saltykov
1742 Roch-Ambroise Cucurron Sicard a French abbé and instructor of the deaf.
1746 Maurice Benyovszky a Slovak-Hungarian count with Hungarian, Polish and Slovak ancestry. He was an explorer, writer, ruler and self declared King of eastern Madagascar, and military officer in the French, Polish, Austrian and American armies. In his memoirs he described himself on several occasions as a "Hungarian and Polish nobleman"
1758 Jean-Jacques Dessalines a leader of the Haitian Revolution and the first ruler of an independent Haiti under the 1801 constitution. Initially regarded as governor-general, Dessalines later named himself Emperor Jacques I of Haiti. He is regarded as a founding father of Haiti
1758 Dmitry Ivanovich Lobanov-Rostovsky Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Lobanov-Rostovsky , Russian Prince, statesman and military leader.
1759 Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles a French judge and politician who took part in the French Revolution.
1778 Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen a Baltic German officer in the Imperial Russian Navy, cartographer and explorer, who ultimately rose to the rank of Admiral. He was a notable participant of the first Russian circumnavigation and subsequently a leader of another circumnavigation expedition, which discovered the continent of Antarctica
1789 George II Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont from 1813 to 1845.
1795 Charles Zeuner an organist and composer active in Germany for a time, and then in Boston and Philadelphia in the United States.
1800 Benjamin Franklin White a shape note "singing master", and compiler of the shape note tunebook known as The Sacred Harp. He was born near Cross Keys in Union County, South Carolina, the twelfth child of Robert and Mildred White
1802 Louis Augustus Karl Frederick Emil Duke of Anhalt-Köthen a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the duchy of Anhalt-Köthen.
1803 Władysław Hieronim Sanguszko a Polish nobleman, landowner, conservative politician.
1803 François Buloz a French littérateur, magazine editor, and theater administrator.
1803 Catherine Crowe an English novelist, story writer and playwright.
1808 Albert Zimmermann a German painter. He was the brother of painters Max, Richard, and Robert Zimmermann, and served as Max's teacher. He was primarily self-taught as a painter, but did study at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts and the Academy of Fine Arts Munich
1809 Sterling Price a lawyer, planter, and politician from the U.S. state of Missouri, who served as the 11th Governor of the state from 1853 to 1857. He also served as a United States Army brigadier general during the Mexican-American War, and a Confederate Army major general in the American Civil War. Price is best known for his victories in New Mexico and Chihuahua during the Mexican conflict, and for his losses at the Battles of Pea Ridge and Westport during the Civil War–the latter being the culmination of his ill-fated Missouri Campaign of 1864. Following the war, Price took his remaining troops to Mexico rather than surrender, unsuccessfully seeking service with the Emperor Maximillian there. He ultimately returned to Missouri, where he died in poverty and was buried in Louis
1810 George Coles (politician) a Canadian politician, being the first Premier of Prince Edward Island, and a Father of Canadian Confederation.
1811 Henry Coxe an English librarian and scholar.
1816 Fredrik August Dahlgren a Swedish writer, playwright and songwriter.
1818 Edward A. O'Neal a Confederate officer during the American Civil War and the 26th Governor of Alabama.
1819 Théodore Chassériau a French romantic painter noted for his portraits, historical and religious paintings, allegorical murals, and Orientalist images inspired by his travels to Algeria.
1820 John F. Reynolds a career United States Army officer and a general in the American Civil War. One of the Union Army's most respected senior commanders, he played a key role in committing the Army of the Potomac to the Battle of Gettysburg and was killed at the start of the battle
1821 Auguste Pomel a French geologist and paleontologist. He worked as a mines engineer in Algeria and became a specialist in north African vertebrate fossils
1830 Yoshida Shōin one of the most distinguished intellectuals in the closing days of the Tokugawa shogunate. He devoted himself to nurturing many Ishin Shishi who in turn made an outstanding contribution to the Meiji Restoration
1830 Edward James Reed a British naval architect, author, politician, and railroad magnate. He was the Chief Constructor of the Royal Navy from 1863 until 1870. He was a Liberal politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1874 to 1906
1831 Kate Harrington (poet) an American teacher, writer and poet.
1832 Johann Joseph Abert a German composer. An ethnic German from the Sudetenland, he is also known by his Czech name Jan Josef Abert
1832 Prince Nikolaus Wilhelm of Nassau the only son of William, Duke of Nassau by his second wife Princess Pauline of Württemberg.
1833 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta an Italian journalist, nationalist, revolutionary soldier and later a pacifist and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate. He adopted the motto In varietate unitas!
1842 Diomede Falconio an Italian Cardinal of the Catholic Church. He served as Prefect of the Congregation for Religious from 1916 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1911
1842 James Dewar a Scottish chemist and physicist. He is probably best-known today for his invention of the Dewar flask, which he used in conjunction with extensive research into the liquefaction of gases. He was also particularly interested in atomic and molecular spectroscopy, working in these fields for more than 25 years
1843 Nicholas Alexandrovich Tsarevich of Russia For the son of Alexander III, who succeeded his father on the throne in 1894, see Nicholas II of Russia.
1849 George Bird Grinnell an American anthropologist, historian, naturalist, and writer. Grinnell was born in Brooklyn, New York, and graduated from Yale University with a B.A. in 1870 and a Ph.D. in 1880. Originally specializing in zoology, he became a prominent early conservationist and student of Native American life. Grinnell has been recognized for his influence on public opinion and work on legislation to preserve the American buffalo
1850 Ōshima Yoshimasa a general in the early Imperial Japanese Army during the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War. His great grandson, Shinzō Abe was Prime Minister of Japan
1851 Henry Arthur Jones an English dramatist.
1853 Chulalongkorn the fifth monarch of Siam under the House of Chakri. He was known to the Siamese of his time as Phra Phuttha Chao Luang. He is considered one of the greatest kings of Siam. His reign was characterized by the modernization of Siam, immense government and social reforms, and territorial cessions to the British Empire and French Indochina. As Siam was threatened by Western expansionism, Chulalongkorn, through his policies and acts, managed to save Siam from being colonized. All his reforms were dedicated to Siam’s insurance of survival in the midst of Western colonialism, so that Chulalongkorn earned the epithet Phra Piya Maharat
1861 Herbert Putnam an American librarian. He was the eighth Librarian of Congress from 1899 to 1939. He implemented his vision of a universal collection with strengths in every language, especially from Europe and Latin America