Born on September 21

687 Antipope Theodore considered an antipope of the Roman Catholic Church.
687 Antipope Paschal considered an antipope of the Roman Catholic Church.
1051 Bertha of Savoy the first wife of Emperor Henry IV, and was Queen of Germany and Holy Roman Empress.
1217 Caupo of Turaida now part of Latvia and Estonia. He is sometimes called 'King of Livonia', Chronicle of Henry of Livonia calls him quasi rex, 'like a king'
1371 Frederick I Elector of Brandenburg Burgrave of Nuremberg as Frederick VI and Elector of Brandenburg as Frederick He was a son of Burgrave Frederick V of Nuremberg and Elisabeth of Meissen, and was the first member of the House of Hohenzollern to rule the Margraviate of Brandenburg.
1407 Leonello d'Este Marquis of Ferrara marquis of Ferrara and Duke of Modena and Reggio Emilia from 1441 to 1450.
1411 Richard of York 3rd Duke of York a leading English magnate, a great-grandson of King Edward III through his father and a great-great-great-grandson of that king through his mother. He inherited great estates, and served in various offices of state in France at the end of the Hundred Years' War, and in England, ultimately governing the country as Lord Protector during Henry VI's madness. His conflicts with Henry's wife, Margaret of Anjou, and other members of Henry's court, as well as his competing claim on the throne, were a leading factor in the political upheaval of mid-fifteenth-century England, and a major cause of the Wars of the Roses. Richard eventually attempted to take the throne but was dissuaded, although it was agreed that he would become King on Henry's death Within a few weeks of securing this agreement, he died in battle
1415 Frederick III Holy Roman Emperor the Holy Roman Emperor from 1452 until his death. Prior to his imperial coronation, he was hereditary Duke of Austria from 1424 and elected King of Germany from 1440. He was the first emperor of the House of Habsburg. In 1493, he was succeeded by his son Maximilian I after ten years of joint rule
1428 Jingtai Emperor Emperor of China from 1449 to 1457. The second son of the Xuande Emperor, he was selected in 1449 to succeed his older brother, the Zhengtong Emperor, when the latter was captured by Mongols following the Tumu Crisis. He reigned for 8 years before being removed from the throne by his brother, who was restored as the Tianshun Emperor. The Jingtai Emperor's era name means "Exalted View"
1433 Guillaume Fichet a French scholar who cooperated with Johann Heynlin to establish the first printing press in France in 1470.
1452 Girolamo Savonarola an Italian Dominican friar and preacher active in Renaissance Florence, and known for his prophecies of civic glory, destruction of secular art and culture, and calls for Christian renewal. He denounced clerical corruption, despotic rule and the exploitation of the poor. He prophesied the coming of a biblical flood and a new Cyrus from the north who would reform the Church. This seemed confirmed when Charles VIII of France invaded Italy and threatened Florence. While Savonarola intervened with the king, the Florentines expelled the ruling Medici and, at the friar’s urging, established a "popular" republic. Declaring that Florence would be the New Jerusalem, the world center of Christianity and "richer, more powerful, more glorious than ever", he instituted an extreme puritanical campaign, enlisting the active help of Florentine youth
1457 Hedwig Jagiellon Duchess of Bavaria the eldest daughter of King Casimir IV Jagiellon of Poland and Archduchess Elisabeth Habsburg of Hungary.
1516 Matthew Stewart 4th Earl of Lennox the 4th Earl of Lennox, and leader of the Catholic nobility in Scotland. He was the son of John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox. His grandson was James VI of Scotland
1552 Barbara Longhi an Italian painter. She was much admired in her lifetime as a portraitist, although most of her portraits are now lost or unattributed. Her work, such as her many Madonna and Child paintings, earned her a fine reputation as an artist
1559 Cigoli an Italian painter and architect of the late Mannerist and early Baroque period, trained and active in his early career in Florence, and spending the last nine years of his life in Rome.
1562 Vincenzo Gonzaga Duke of Mantua ruler of the Duchy of Mantua and the Duchy of Montferrat from 1587 to 1612.
1563 Henri Duke of Joyeuse a General in the French Wars of Religion and a member of the Catholic League, who was became ordained as a Capuchin after the death of his wife, Catherine de La Valette. He was the youngest brother of Anne de Joyeuse and François de Joyeuse
1629 Philip Howard (cardinal) Hon. Philip Howard was an English Roman Catholic cardinal. Born the third son of Henry Frederick Howard and his wife, Elizabeth Stuart , Howard was a member of the premier Catholic family in England. At the age of sixteen he joined the Dominican Order in Cremona, and was ordained in 1652. He founded the priory of Bornem in Flanders, with a college for English youths attached to it, and was himself the first prior and novice master. He also founded at Vilvoorde a convent of nuns of the Second Order of Saint Dominic, now at Carisbrooke on the Isle of Wight
1638 Philippe de Courcillon a French officer and author.
1640 Philippe I Duke of Orléans the youngest son of Louis XIII of France and his wife, Anne of Austria. His older brother was Louis XIV, le roi soleil. Styled Duke of Anjou from birth, Philippe became Duke of Orléans upon the death of his uncle Gaston in 1660. In 1661, Philippe also received the dukedoms of Valois and Chartres. Following Philippe's victory in battle in 1671, Louis XIV added the dukedom of Nemours, the marquisates of Coucy and Folembray, and the countships of Dourdan and Romorantin. During the reign of his brother he was known simply as Monsieur, the traditional style at the court of France for the younger brother of the king
1645 Louis Jolliet a French Canadian explorer known for his discoveries in North America. Jolliet and Jesuit Father Jacques Marquette, a Catholic priest and missionary, were the first non-Natives to explore and map much of the Mississippi River in 1673
1689 Jan Klemens Branicki a Polish nobleman, magnate and Hetman, Field Crown Hetman of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth between 1735 and 1752, and Great Crown Hetman between 1752 and 1771. One of the wealthiest Polish magnates in the 17th century, owner of 12 towns, 257 villages and 17 palaces. He was the last male representative of the Branicki family
1706 Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg the second wife of Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Piedmont whom she married in 1724. The mother of the future Victor Amadeus III, she was queen consort of Sardinia from 1730 until her death in 1735
1722 Gisela Agnes of Anhalt-Köthen a princess of Anhalt-Köthen by birth and by marriage Duchess of Anhalt-Dessau.
1726 Jovan Rajić a Serbian and Bulgarian writer, historian, traveller, and pedagogue, considered one of the greatest Serbian academics of the 18th century. He was one of the most notable representatives of Serbian Baroque literature along with Zaharije Orfelin, Pavle Julinac, Vasilije III Petrović-Njegoš, Simeon Končarević, Simeon Piščević, and others
1727 Francesco Bartolozzi an Italian engraver, whose most productive period was spent in London.
1744 Giacomo Quarenghi the foremost and most prolific practitioner of Palladian architecture in Imperial Russia, particularly in Saint Petersburg. He has been described as "the last of the great architects of Italy"
1756 John Loudon McAdam a Scottish engineer and road-builder. He invented a new process, "macadamisation", for building roads with a smooth hard surface, using controlled materials of mixed particle size and predetermined structure, that would be more durable and less muddy than soil-based tracks
1758 Christopher Gore a prominent Massachusetts lawyer, Federalist politician, and U.S. diplomat. Born into a family divided by the American Revolution, Gore sided with the victorious Patriots, established a successful law practice in Boston, and built a fortune by purchasing Revolutionary government debts at a discount and receiving full value for them from the government
1758 Antoine Isaac Silvestre de Sacy a French linguist and orientalist. His son, Ustazade Silvestre de Sacy, became a journalist
1760 Olof Swartz a Swedish botanist and taxonomist. He is best known for his taxonomic work and studies into pteridophytes. He attended the University of Uppsala where he studied under Carolus Linnaeus the Younger and received his doctorate in 1781
1760 Ivan Dmitriev a Russian statesman and poet associated with the sentamentalist movement in Russian literature.
1766 Christian Ludwig Ideler a German chronologist and astronomer.
1771 François-Joseph-Philippe de Riquet the 16th Prince de Chimay from 24 July 1804 to 1843.
1778 Carl Ludwig Koch a German entomologist and arachnologist. He was responsible for classifying a great number of spiders, including the Brazilian whiteknee tarantula and Common house spider. He was born in Kusel, Germany and died in Nuremberg, Germany
1784 Karl Thomas Mozart the second son, and the elder of the two surviving sons, of Wolfgang and Constanze Mozart. The other was Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart
1788 Geert Adriaans Boomgaard accepted by most demographic scholars as the first validated supercentenarian case on record. However, some may view him as the second internationally recognized supercentenarian in the world after the disputed case of his fellow countryman Thomas Peters was moved into the Guinness Book main tables in the early 1990s
1788 Princess Wilhelmine of Baden Grand Duchess consort of Hesse and the Rhine.
1788 Margaret Taylor First Lady of the United States from 1849 to 1850.
1791 István Széchenyi a Hungarian politician, theorist and writer, one of the greatest statesmen of Hungarian history. István is a Hungarian name equivalent of the name Stephen
1792 Johann Peter Eckermann best known for his work Conversations with Goethe, the fruit of his association with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe during the last years of Goethe's life.
1798 William Sublette a fur trapper, pioneer and mountain man, who, with his brothers after 1823, became an agent of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company , exploiting the riches of the Oregon Country, which helped settle the best routes later improved into the Oregon Trail.
1815 Paul Rudolf von Bilguer a German chess master and chess theoretician from Ludwigslust in the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
1817 Carter L. Stevenson a career military officer, serving in the United States Army in several antebellum wars and then in the Confederate States Army as a general in the Western Theater of the American Civil War.
1819 Princess Louise Marie Thérèse of Artois a duchess and later a regent of Parma. She was the eldest daughter of Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, younger son of King Charles X of France and his wife Carolina of Naples and Sicily, daughter of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies
1821 Andrei Alexandrovich Popov an officer of the Imperial Russian Navy, who saw action during the Crimean War, and became a noted naval designer.
1821 Georg Rosen (1821–1891) a German Orientalist, brother of Friedrich August Rosen, and father of Friedrich Rosen. He studied in Berlin and Leipzig
1825 Mårten Eskil Winge a Swedish artist especially known for his Norse mythology paintings. He was a friend of August Malmström and under influence from Nils Blommér and Carl Wahlbom. He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting
1827 Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich of Russia the second son of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia.
1832 Louis Paul Cailletet a French physicist and inventor.