Died on September 22

652 Emmeram of Regensburg born in Poitiers and was a Christian bishop and a martyr. He died circa 652 and is buried in Emmeram's in Regensburg, Germany. His feast day in the Catholic calendar of saints is 22 September
717 Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 715 until 717. His father was Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, and he was a younger brother of the previous caliph, al-Walid I
1072 Ouyang Xiu a Chinese statesman, historian, essayist, calligrapher and poet of the Song Dynasty. He is also known by his courtesy name of Yongshu, and was also self nicknamed The Old Drunkard 醉翁, or Householder of the One of Six 六一居士 in his old age. Due to the multi-faceted nature of his talents, he would be regarded in Western parlance as a Renaissance man
1093 Olaf III of Norway King of Norway from 1067 until his death in 1093. He was present at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in England in 1066 where his father, King Harald Hardrada, saw defeat and was killed in action, an event that directly preceded his kingship. During his rule, Olaf made peace with regards to earlier royal conflicts with the church, strengthened the power of the monarchy, and is said to have founded the city of Bergen in 1070
1158 Otto of Freising a German churchman and chronicler. He was bishop of Freising as Otto I from 1138
1253 Dōgen a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher born in Kyōto. He founded the Sōtō school of Zen in Japan after travelling to China and training under Rujing, a master of the Chinese Caodong lineage
1286 Mugaku Sogen a prominent Zen Buddhist monk of the 13th century in Japan, an emigre from Song Dynasty China. He was adviser to Japan's most powerful ruler of the day, the regent of the Shogun Hōjō Tokimune. He founded the Zen temple Engaku-ji in Kamakura, one of Japan's five most important Zen temples
1306 John of Paris a French philosopher, theologian, and Dominican friar.
1345 Henry 3rd Earl of Lancaster an English nobleman, one of the principals behind the deposition of Edward II of England.
1369 Guido Gonzaga an Italian condottiero.
1399 Thomas de Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk an English peer. As a result of his involvement in the power struggles which led up to the fall of Richard II, he was banished and died in exile in Venice
1408 John VII Palaiologos Byzantine Emperor for five months in 1390. While he was Emperor, there is evidence showing he used the name Andronikos, after his father, although when he was regent during his brother's absence in the West, he governed in his birth name
1411 Anne de Mortimer the mother of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and the grandmother of King Edward IV and King Richard III.
1417 Anne of Auvergne the only child of Beraud II, Dauphin of Auvergne and his first wife Jeanne of Forez. She was Dauphine of Auvergne and Countess of Forez as well as Dame de Mercoeur in her own right and was Duchess of Bourbon by her marriage
1437 Pedro de Menezes 1st Count of Vila Real a 15th-century Portuguese nobleman and military figure. Pedro de Menezes was the 2nd Count of Viana do Alentejo, 1st. Count of Vila Real and the first Portuguese governor of Ceuta
1457 Peter II Duke of Brittany Duke of Brittany, Count of Montfort and titular earl of Richmond, from 1450 to his death. He was son of Duke John VI and Joan of France, and thus was younger brother of Francis I
1482 Philibert I Duke of Savoy the son of Amadeus IX, Duke of Savoy and Yolande of Valois. Philibert was Duke of Savoy from 1472 to 1482
1520 Selim I the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. His reign is notable for the enormous expansion of the Empire, particularly his conquest between 1516 and 1517 of the entire Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, which included all of Sham, Hejaz, Tihamah, and Egypt itself. With the heart of the Arab World now under their control, the Ottomans became the dominant power in the region and in the Islamic world. Upon conquering Egypt, Selim took the title of Caliph of Islam, although Ottoman rulers beginning with Fatih Sultan Mehmed had already begun to claim caliphal authority. He was also granted the title of "Khâdim ül Haramain ish Sharifain" by the Sharif of Mecca in 1517
1531 Louise of Savoy a French noblewoman, Duchess regnant of Auvergne and Bourbon, Duchess of Nemours, the mother of King Francis I of France. She was politically active and served as the Regent of France in 1515, in 1525–1526 and in 1529
1539 Guru Nanak the founder of Sikhism and the first of the Sikh Gurus. His birth is celebrated world-wide on Kartik Puranmashi, the full-moon day which falls on different dates each year in the month of Katak, October–November
1554 Francisco Vásquez de Coronado a Spanish conquistador and explorer, who led a great expedition from Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542. Coronado had hoped to reach the mythical Seven Cities of Gold. His expedition discovered the Grand Canyon and the Colorado River. His name is often Anglicized as Vasquez de Coronado
1563 Teodósio I Duke of Braganza the 5th Duke of Braganza, among other titles. He is known for ceding the title of Duke of Guimarães to Infante Duarte of Aviz, alongside some of the wealth and properties of the House of Braganza
1566 Johannes Agricola a German Protestant reformer. He was a follower and friend of Martin Luther, who became his antagonist in the matter of the binding obligation of the law on Christians
1578 Archduke Wenceslaus of Austria a German prince and member of the House of Habsburg and since 1577 Grand Prior of the Order of Malta in Castile.
1607 Alessandro Allori an Italian portrait painter of the late Mannerist Florentine school.
1630 Yuan Chonghuan a famed patriot and military commander of the Ming Dynasty who battled the Manchus in Liaoning. Of Cantonese origin, Yuan Chonghuan was known to have excelled in artillery warfare and successfully incorporated Western tactics with those of the East. Yuan's military career reached its height when he defeated Nurhaci and the Manchu army in the first Battle of Ningyuan. Later, Yuan also managed to defeat Nurhaci's son and successor, Huang Taiji, and his 200,000 mostly Mongol soldiers. However, Yuan was eventually tortured and executed by the Chongzhen Emperor under false charges which Huang Taiji was believed to have deliberately planted against him
1637 Charles Gonzaga Duke of Mantua and Montferrat Duke of Mantua and Duke of Montferrat from 1627 until his death. He was also Duke of Rethel and Nevers, as well as Prince of Arches
1662 John Biddle (Unitarian) an influential English nontrinitarian, and Unitarian. He is often called "the Father of English Unitarianism"
1688 François Bernier a French physician and traveller. He was born at Joué-Etiau in Anjou. He was briefly personal physician to Prince Dara Shikoh, the elder son of Shah Jahan, and after Dara Shikoh's fall was attached to the court of the Emperor Aurangzeb for around 12 years during his stay in India
1692 Martha Corey accused and convicted of being a witch during the 1692 Salem witch trials, alongside her husband, Giles Corey.
1703 Vincenzo Viviani an Italian mathematician and scientist. He was a pupil of Torricelli and a disciple of Galileo
1717 Zheng Keshuang the third ruler of the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan in the 17th century. He was the second son of Zheng Jing and a grandson of Koxinga
1737 Michel Pignolet de Montéclair a French composer of the baroque period.
1769 Antonio Genovesi an Italian writer on philosophy and political economy.
1774 Pope Clement XIV born Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, reigned from 19 May 1769 to his death in 1774. At the time of his election, he was the only Franciscan friar in the College of Cardinals. He is the last pope to take the name "Clement" upon his election
1774 Charles Louis Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck a Lieutenant General in the Prussian Army and Governor of Reval in the Governorate of Estonia.
1776 Nathan Hale a soldier for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He volunteered for an intelligence-gathering mission in New York City but was captured by the British and executed. He is probably best remembered for his purported last words before being hanged: "I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country." Hale has long been considered an American hero and, in 1985, he was officially designated the state hero of Connecticut
1777 John Bartram an early American botanist, horticulturist and explorer. Carolus Linnaeus said he was the "greatest natural botanist in the world."
1788 Toriyama Sekien an 18th-century scholar and ukiyo-e artist of Japanese folklore. He was the teacher of Utamaro and, before taking up printmaking, a painter of the Kanō school. Toriyama is most famous for his attempt to catalogue all species of yōkai in the Hyakki Yagyō series
1803 Angelo Fabroni an Italian biographer and historian.
1808 Archduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria (1743–1808) For the earlier archduchess of the same name, see Archduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria.
1813 Rose Bertin a French milliner and dressmaker to Queen Marie Antoinette. She was the first celebrated French fashion designer and is widely credited with having brought fashion and haute couture to the forefront of popular culture
1814 August Wilhelm Iffland a German actor and dramatic author.
1816 Christen Smith an early 19th-century Norwegian physician, economist and naturalist, particularly botanist. He died, only 30 years old during a dramatic expedition to the Congo River in 1816, leaving a wealth of botanical material
1816 Matteo Babini a leading Italian tenor of the late 18th-century, and a teacher of singing and stage art.
1821 Louise-Rosalie Lefebvre a French operatic mezzo-soprano, actress and dancer.
1826 Johann Peter Hebel a German short story writer, dialectal poet, evangelical theologian and pedagogue, most famous for a collection of Alemannic lyric poems and one of German tales.
1833 Niels Treschow a Norwegian philosopher and politician.
1837 William George Horner a British mathematician; he was a schoolmaster, headmaster and schoolkeeper, proficient in classics as well as mathematics, who wrote extensively on functional equations, number theory and approximation theory, but also on optics. His contribution to approximation theory is honoured in the designation Horner's method, in particular respect of a paper in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London for 1819. The modern invention of the zoetrope, under the name Daedaleum in 1834, has been attributed to him
1840 Princess Augusta Sophia of the United Kingdom the second daughter of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.