Born on September 23

63 Augustus the founder of the Roman Empire and its first Emperor, ruling from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD.
1158 Geoffrey II Duke of Brittany Duke of Brittany and 3rd Earl of Richmond between 1181 and 1186, through his marriage with the heiress Constance. Geoffrey was the fourth son of King Henry II of England and Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine
1193 Robert de Sablé the eleventh Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1191 to 1193 and Lord of Cyprus from 1191 to 1192.
1215 Kublai Khan the fifth Khagan of the Ikh Mongol Uls , reigning from 1260 to 1294, and the founder of the Chinese Yuan dynasty, a division of the Mongol Empire.
1392 Filippo Maria Visconti ruler of Milan from 1412 to 1447.
1434 Yolande of Valois a Duchess consort of Savoy. She was a daughter of King Charles VII of France, "The Victorious," and Marie of Anjou. She married Duke Amadeus IX of Savoy in 1452. She was named after her grandmother, Yolande of Aragon. She is sometimes known as Yolande of France. Yolande acted as regent of Savoy in 1472-78
1439 Francesco di Giorgio Martini an Italian painter of the Sienese School and a sculptor, as well as being, in Nikolaus Pevsner's terms: one of the most interesting later Quattrocento architects and a visionary architectural theorist; as a military engineer he executed architectural designs and sculptural projects and built almost seventy fortifications for the Federico da Montefeltro, Count of Urbino, for whom he was working in the 1460s, building city walls as at Iesi and early examples of star-shaped fortifications.
1495 Bagrat III of Imereti a King of Imereti from April 1, 1510, to 1565. He succeeded upon the death of his father, Alexander II, and faced repeated assaults from the Ottoman Turks as well as the conflicts with his ostensible vassal princes of Mingrelia, Guria, and Abkhazia who were frequently joining the enemy
1519 Francis Count of Enghien a French prince of the blood. He was the son of Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme
1526 Henry Manners 2nd Earl of Rutland an English nobleman. He also held the title of 13th Baron de Ros of Hamlake, a title to which he acceded in 1543
1555 Louise de Coligny the daughter of Gaspard II de Coligny and Charlotte de Laval and the fourth and last spouse of William the Silent.
1583 Christian II Elector of Saxony Elector of Saxony from 1591 to 1611.
1596 Joan Blaeu a Dutch cartographer born in Alkmaar, the son of cartographer Willem Blaeu.
1597 Francesco Barberini (1597–1679) an Italian Catholic Cardinal. The nephew of Pope Urban VIII , he benefited immensely from the nepotism practiced by his uncle. He was given various roles within the Vatican administration but his personal cultural interests, particularly in literature and the arts, meant that he became a highly significant patron. His secretary was the antiquarian Cassiano dal Pozzo who was also a discerning patron of the arts. Francesco was the elder brother of Cardinal Antonio Barberini and Taddeo Barberini who became Prince of Palestrina
1628 David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl a Swedish nobleman and portrait painter.
1642 Giovanni Maria Bononcini an Italian violinist and composer, the father of a musical dynasty.
1647 Joseph Dudley an English colonial administrator. A native of Roxbury, Massachusetts, and the son of one of its founders, Dudley had a leading role in the administration of the Dominion of New England , overthrown in the 1689 Boston revolt, and served briefly on the council of the Province of New York. In New York, he oversaw the trial that convicted Jacob Leisler, the ringleader of Leisler's Rebellion. He spent eight years in the 1690s as lieutenant governor of the Isle of Wight, including one year as a Member of Parliament. In 1702 he was appointed governor of the provinces of Massachusetts Bay and New Hampshire, posts he held until 1715
1647 Frederick VII Margrave of Baden-Durlach the Margrave of Baden-Durlach from 1677 until his death.
1650 Jeremy Collier an English theatre critic, non-juror bishop and theologian.
1711 Louis Nicolas Victor de Félix d'Ollières a French soldier and statesman from a family originating in Provence. He was made a member of the Ordre du Saint-Esprit in 1764
1713 Ferdinand VI of Spain King of Spain from 9 July 1746 until his death. He was the fourth son of the previous monarch Philip V and his first wife Maria Luisa of Savoy. Ferdinand, the third member of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty, was born in Madrid on 23 September 1713
1728 Carlo Allioni an Italian physician and professor of botany at the University of Turin. His most important work was Flora Pedemontana, sive enumeratio methodica stirpium indigenarum Pedemontii 1755, a study of the plant world in Piedmont, in which he listed 2813 species of plants, of which 237 were previously unknown. In 1766, he published the Manipulus Insectorum Tauriniensium
1735 Clas Bjerkander a Swedish meteorologist, botanist, and entomologist.
1740 Empress Go-Sakuramachi the 117th monarch of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1759 Marie Clotilde of France a French princess who became Queen of Sardinia as Clotilda in 1796. She was the younger sister of Louis XVI of France and later the wife of Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia. She was politically active and acted as the de facto first minister of her spouse during his reign
1771 Emperor Kōkaku the 119th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1778 Mariano Moreno an Argentine lawyer, journalist, and politician. He played a decisive role in the Primera Junta, the first national government of Argentina, created after the May Revolution
1782 Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied a German explorer, ethnologist and naturalist. He led a pioneering expedition to southeast Brazil between 1815–1817, from which the album Reise nach Brasilien, which first revealed to Europe real images of Brazilian Indians, was the ultimate result. It was translated into several languages and recognized as one of the greatest contributions to the knowledge of Brazil at the beginning of the nineteenth century. In 1832 he embarked on another expedition, this time to North America, together with the Swiss painter Karl Bodmer
1784 Peter von Cornelius a German painter.
1785 Per Georg Scheutz now best known for his pioneering work in computer technology.
1788 Bento Gonçalves da Silva an army officer, politician, monarchist and rebel leader of the Empire of Brazil.
1789 Lars Gabriel von Haartman a Swedish-speaking Finnish politician. Along with Count Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt, he was one of the most prominent politicians who were in favour of developing Finland as part of the Russian Empire instead of striving towards independence
1791 Johann Franz Encke a German astronomer. Among his activities, he worked on the calculation of the periods of comets and asteroids, measured the distance from the earth to the sun, and made observations of the planet Saturn
1791 Theodor Körner (author) a German poet and soldier. After some time in Vienna, where he wrote some light comedies and other works for the Burgtheater, he became a soldier and joined the Lützow Free Corps in the German uprising against Napoleon. During these times, he displayed personal courage in many fights, and encouraged his comrades by fiery patriotic lyrics he composed, among these being the “Schwertlied" , composed during a lull in fighting only a few hours before his death, and “Lützows wilde Jagd" , each set to music by both Carl Maria von Weber and Franz Schubert. He was often called the “German Tyrtaeus.”
1791 Heinrich Friedrich von Arnim-Heinrichsdorff-Werbelow a Prussian statesman.
1795 Wenceslas Bojer a notable naturalist and botanist.
1799 Prince Frederick Augustus of Anhalt-Dessau a German prince of the House of Ascania from the Anhalt-Dessau branch.
1800 William Holmes McGuffey best known for writing the McGuffey Readers, the first widely used series of textbooks. It is estimated that at least 122 million copies of McGuffey Readers were sold between 1836 and 1960, placing its sales in a category with the Bible and Webster's Dictionary
1803 Jacques Crétineau-Joly a French Catholic journalist and historian.
1806 Fabre Geffrard a mulatto general in the Haitian army and President of Haiti from 1859 until his deposition in 1867. After collaborating in a coup to remove Faustin Soulouque from power in order to return Haiti back to the social and political control of the colored elite, Geffrard was made president in 1859. To placate the peasants he renewed the practice of selling state-owned lands and ended a schism with the Roman Catholic Church which then took on an important role in improving education. After surviving several rebellions, he was overthrown by Major Sylvain Salnave in 1867
1808 Hermann Winterhalter a German painter, younger brother of the portrait painter Franz Xaver Winterhalter.
1816 Elihu B. Washburne an American politician and diplomat. A member of the Washburn family of Maine, which played a prominent role in the early formation of the United States Republican Party, Washburne served as a congressman from Illinois before and during the American Civil War, and was a political ally of President Abraham Lincoln and General Ulysses Grant
1816 Prince Antonio Count of Lecce a son of Francis I of the Two Sicilies and a brother of Ferdinand II King of the Two Sicilies. Known by his tile of Count of Lecce, he was killed at age 26
1819 Hippolyte Fizeau a French physicist, best known for measuring the speed of light in a namesake experiment.
1829 Radama II the son and heir of Queen Ranavalona I and ruled from 1861 to 1863 over the Kingdom of Madagascar, which controlled virtually the entire island. Radama's rule, although brief, was a pivotal period in the history of the Kingdom of Madagascar. Under the unyielding and often harsh 33-year rule of his mother, Queen Ranavalona I, Madagascar had successfully preserved its cultural and political independence from French and British designs. Rejecting the queen's policy of isolationism and Christian persecution, Radama II permitted religious freedom and re-opened Madagascar to European influence. Under the terms of the Lambert Charter, which Radama secretly contracted in 1855 with French entrepreneur Joseph-François Lambert while Ranavalona still ruled, the French were awarded exclusive rights to the exploitation of large tracts of valuable land and other lucrative resources and projects. This agreement, which was later revoked by Prime Minister Rainilaiarivony, was key to establishing France's claim over Madagascar as a protectorate and, in 1896, as a colony
1837 Paul Kleinert a German theologian, born at Vielguth in Prussian Silesia. From 1854 to 1857 he studied at the universities of Breslau and Halle. He taught school in Oppeln and Berlin, becoming professor at the University of Berlin in 1868. In 1885-1886 he was rector at the University of Berlin. From 1873 to 1891 he was member of the Marcher Consistory in Berlin. In 1892 he was promoted upper consistorial counsellor in the Supreme Consistory of the Evangelical State Church of Prussia's older Provinces
1837 Joseph Rabinowitz a member of a Jewish Christian congregation in Russia.
1838 Victoria Woodhull an American leader of the woman's suffrage movement.
1841 Joseph D. Sayers the 22nd Governor of Texas from 1899 to 1903. During Sayers's term, the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 demolished that city
1843 Emily Warren Roebling married to Washington Roebling, a civil engineer who was Chief Engineer during the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge. She is best known for her contribution to the completion of the Brooklyn Bridge after her husband developed caisson disease