Born on September 26

931 Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah the fourth Fatimid Caliph and 14th Ismaili imam, and reigned from 953 to 975. It was during his caliphate that the center of power of the Fatimid dynasty was moved from Ifriqiya to the newly conquered Egypt. Fatimids founded the city of al-Qāhiratu "the Victorious" in 969 as the new capital of the Fāṭimid caliphate in Egypt
1329 Anne of Bavaria a queen consort of Bohemia. She was the daughter of Rudolf II, Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine, and Anna, daughter of Otto III of Carinthia
1406 Thomas de Ros 8th Baron de Ros an English peer.
1553 Nicolò Contarini the 97th Doge of Venice, reigning from his election on January 18, 1630 until his death 15 months later. Contarini was the Doge who presided over Venice during the Italian plague of 1629–1631, which killed one third of Venice's population
1641 Nehemiah Grew an English plant anatomist and physiologist, very famously known as the "Father of Plant Anatomy".
1660 George William Duke of Liegnitz the last Silesian duke of Legnica and Brzeg from 1672 until his death. He was the last male member of the Silesian Piast dynasty
1678 Peter Lacy known in Russia , was one of the most successful Russian imperial commanders before Rumyantsev and Suvorov. During a military career that spanned half a century, he professed to have been present at a total of 31 campaigns, 18 battles, and 18 sieges. He died at Riga, of which he for many years served as governor
1688 Willem 's Gravesande a Dutch lawyer and natural philosopher, chiefly remembered for developing experimental demonstrations of the laws of classical mechanics. As professor of mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy at Leiden University, he helped to propagate Isaac Newton's ideas in Continental Europe
1711 Richard Grenville-Temple 2nd Earl Temple a British politician. He is best known for his association with his brother-in-law William Pitt who he served with in government during Britain's participation in the Seven Years War between 1756 and 1761. He resigned along with Pitt in protest at the cabinet's failure to declare war on Spain
1726 John Anderson (natural philosopher) a Scottish natural philosopher and liberal educator at the forefront of the application of science to technology in the industrial revolution, and of the education and advancement of working men and women.
1742 Thomas Jones (artist) a Welsh landscape painter. He was a pupil of Richard Wilson and was best known in his lifetime as a painter of Welsh and Italian landscapes in the style of his master. However, Jones's reputation grew in the 20th century when more unconventional works by him, ones not been intended for public consumption, came to light. Most notable among these is a series of views of Naples which he painted from 1782 to 1783. By breaking with the conventions of classical landscape painting in favour of direct observation, they look forward to the work of Camille Corot and the Barbizon School in the 19th century. His autobiography, Memoirs of Thomas Jones of Penkerrig, went unpublished until 1951 but is now recognised as an important source of information on the 18th-century art world
1748 Cuthbert Collingwood 1st Baron Collingwood an admiral of the Royal Navy, notable as a partner with Lord Nelson in several of the British victories of the Napoleonic Wars, and frequently as Nelson's successor in commands.
1750 Raymond Desèze a French advocate. Together with François Tronchet and Malesherbes, he defended Louis XVI, when the king was brought before the Convention for trial
1754 Joseph Proust a French chemist. He was best known for his discovery of the law of constant composition in 1799, stating that in chemical reactions matter is neither created nor destroyed
1755 Hans Henric von Essen a Swedish officer, courtier and statesman.
1758 Cosme Argerich a pioneer of military medical practices in Argentina.
1759 Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall instrumental in the switching of the Kingdom of Prussia from a French alliance to a Russian alliance during the War of the Sixth Coalition. Ludwig van Beethoven's "Yorckscher Marsch" is named in his honor
1762 Moses Sofer one of the leading Orthodox rabbis of European Jewry in the first half of the nineteenth century.
1767 Wenzel Müller an Austrian composer and conductor.
1770 Louis Partouneaux led an infantry division during the First French Empire of Napoleon. He joined the army of the First French Republic in 1791 and fought the Sardinians. He served at Toulon in 1793 and at Rivoli and Salorno in 1797. He fought at Verona and Magnano in 1799 and received promotion to general officer. At Novi later that year he was wounded and captured
1774 Johnny Appleseed an American pioneer nurseryman who introduced apple trees to large parts of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, as well as the northern counties of present day West Virginia. He became an American legend while still alive, due to his kind, generous ways, his leadership in conservation, and the symbolic importance he attributed to apples. He was also a missionary for The New Church and the inspiration for many museums and historical sites such as the Johnny Appleseed Museum in Urbana, Ohio and the Johnny Appleseed Heritage Center in between Lucas, Ohio and Mifflin, Ohio
1785 Charles Bird King an American portrait artist, best known for his portrayals of significant Native American leaders and tribesmen.
1786 Horace Hayman Wilson an English orientalist. He studied medicine at St Thomas's Hospital, and went out to India in 1808 as assistant-surgeon on the Bengal establishment of the British East India Company. His knowledge of metallurgy caused him to be attached to the mint at Calcutta, where he was for a time associated with John Leyden
1788 Charles-Victor Prévot vicomte d'Arlincourt a French novelist, born at the Château de Mérantais, Magny-les-Hameaux, Yvelines.
1790 Nassau William Senior an English lawyer known as an economist. He was also a government adviser over several decades in the areas of economic and social policy, on which he wrote extensively
1791 Théodore Géricault an influential French painter and lithographer, known for The Raft of the Medusa and other paintings. Although he died young, he was one of the pioneers of the Romantic movement
1792 William Hobson the first Governor of New Zealand and co-author of the Treaty of Waitangi.
1792 Francis Boott an American physician and botanist who was resident in Great Britain from 1820.
1795 Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo 1st Marquis of Sá da Bandeira a Portuguese nobleman and politician.
1796 Princess Ida of Waldeck and Pyrmont a member of the House of Waldeck and Pyrmont and a Princess of Waldeck and Pyrmont. Through her marriage to George William, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe, Ida was also a member of the House of Lippe and Princess consort of Schaumburg-Lippe
1798 Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera a Colombian general and political figure. He was president of Colombia four times. The first time was as president of Republic of New Granada from 1845 to 1849. During the Colombian Civil War of 1860-1862 he led liberal forces in a civil war against conservative factions. After the liberals won, a new, federalist constitution was implemented, which established a two-year presidency, and the nation renamed the United States of Colombia. Mosquera served twice as president of the new government. From 1861 to 1862 he served in a non-elected, interim manner, while the constitution was written. From 1862 to 1864 he served in an elected manner. He had a fourth term from 1866 to 1867. Due to the liberal reforms carried out under his leadership, he is considered one of the most important persons in Colombian history of the 19th century
1803 Thomas Sidney Cooper an English landscape painter noted for his images of cattle and farm animals.
1805 Dmitry Venevitinov a minor Russian Romantic poet who died at the age of 21, carrying with him one of the greatest hopes of Russian literature.
1809 Philipp von Jolly a German physicist and mathematician.
1810 August von Fligely an Austrian officer and cartographer.
1812 Wilhelm Adolf Schmidt a German historian.
1816 Paul Gervais a French palaeontologist and entomologist.
1820 Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar an Indian Bengali polymath and a key figure of the Bengal Renaissance. he was a philosopher, academic educator, writer, translator, printer, publisher, entrepreneur, reformer, and philanthropist. His efforts to simplify and modernize Bengali prose were significant. He also rationalized and simplified the Bengali alphabet and type, which had remained unchanged since Charles Wilkins and Panchanan Karmakar had cut the first Bengali type in 1780
1830 Ōkubo Toshimichi a Japanese statesman, a samurai of Satsuma, and one of the three great nobles who led the Meiji Restoration. He is regarded as one of the main founders of modern Japan
1832 Rebecca Solomon an English painter.
1833 Charles Bradlaugh a political activist and one of the most famous English atheists of the 19th century. He founded the National Secular Society in 1866
1839 Ludwig Wittmack a German botanist. His formal botanical author abbreviation is "Wittm."
1840 Louis-Olivier Taillon born in Terrebonne, Lower Canada. He twice served as the eighth Premier of the Canadian province of Quebec
1843 Joseph Furphy widely regarded as the "Father of the Australian novel". He mostly wrote under the pseudonym Tom Collins, and is best known for his novel Such Is Life , regarded as an Australian classic
1845 Laura Marx the second daughter of Karl Marx and Jenny von Westphalen. In 1868 she married Paul Lafargue. The two committed suicide together in 1911
1847 Émile Servais a Luxembourgian left liberal politician. He was an engineer by profession
1848 Helen Allingham an English watercolour painter and illustrator of the Victorian era.
1849 Ivan Pavlov a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning. From his childhood days Pavlov demonstrated intellectual brilliance along with an unusual energy which he named "the instinct for research". Inspired by the progressive ideas which I. Pisarev, the most eminent of the Russian literary critics of the 1860s and M. Sechenov, the father of Russian physiology, were spreading, Pavlov abandoned his religious career and decided to devote his life to science. In 1870 he enrolled in the physics and mathematics faculty at the University of Saint Petersburg to take the course in natural science. Ivan Pavlov devoted his life to the study of physiology and sciences, making several remarkable discoveries and ideas that were passed on from generation to generation. He won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1904
1855 Leo Deutsch a Russian revolutionary who was an early member of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party and one of the leaders of that organization's Menshevik factions.
1863 Arthur Bowen Davies an avant-garde American artist and influential advocate of modern art in the United States 1910–1928.