Born on September 27

808 Emperor Ninmyō the 54th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Ninmyō's reign lasted from 833 to 850
823 Ermentrude of Orléans Queen of the Franks by her marriage to Charles the Bald, Holy Roman Emperor and King of West Francia. She was the daughter of Odo, Count of Orléans and his wife Engeltrude
1194 Renaud de Courtenay a French nobleman of the House of Courtenay who came over to England, of Sutton, Berkshire. He can be said to be the founder of the English Courtenay family which became Earls of Devon in 1335. He was the son of Miles de Courtenay and Ermengard de Nevers
1271 Wenceslaus II of Bohemia King of Bohemia , Duke of Cracow , and King of Poland.
1275 John II Duke of Brabant Duke of Brabant, Lothier and Limburg. He was the son of John I of Brabant and Margaretha of Flanders, daughter of Guy of Dampierre
1389 Cosimo de' Medici the first of the Medici political dynasty, de facto rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance; also known as "Cosimo 'the Elder'" and "Cosimo Pater Patriae". His power derived from his great wealth as a banker, and he was a great patron of learning, the arts and architecture
1433 Stanisław Kazimierczyk a Polish Roman Catholic canon regular, theologian and preacher.
1442 John de la Pole 2nd Duke of Suffolk KG , known as "the Trimming Duke". He was the son of William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Alice Chaucer, daughter of Thomas Chaucer, and a great-grandson of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer
1496 Hieronymus Łaski a Polish diplomat born of an illustrious Polish family. Laski was the nephew of Archbishop John Laski and served as palatine of Inowrocław and of Sieradia, Sieradz
1507 Guillaume Rondelet Regus Professor of medicine at the University of Montpellier in southern France and Chancellor of the University between 1556 and his death in 1566. He achieved renown as an anatomist and a naturalist with a particular interest in botany and zoology. His major work was a lengthy treatise on marine animals, which took two years to write and became a standard reference work for about a century afterwards, but his lasting impact lay in his education of a roster of star pupils who became leading figures in the world of late-16th century science
1533 Stephen Báthory Voivode of Transylvania , Prince of Transylvania , from 1576 Queen Anna Jagiellon's husband and jure uxoris King of Poland.
1544 Takenaka Shigeharu also known as Hanbei , was a Japanese samurai during the Sengoku period of the 16th century.
1598 Robert Blake (admiral) one of the most important military commanders of the Commonwealth of England and one of the most famous English admirals of the 17th century, whose successes have "never been excelled, not even by Nelson" according to one biographer. Blake is recognised as the chief founder of England's naval supremacy, a dominance subsequently inherited by the British Royal Navy into the early 20th century. Despite this, due to deliberate attempts to expunge the Parliamentarians from history following the Restoration, Blake's achievements tend not to receive the full recognition that they deserve
1601 Louis XIII of France a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged to the French crown.
1622 Karel Dujardin a Dutch Golden Age painter. Although he did a few portraits and a few history paintings of religious subjects, most of his work is small Italianate landscape scenes with animals and peasants, and other genre scenes. Dujardin spent two extended periods, at the beginning and end of his career, in Italy, and most of his paintings and landscape etchings have an Italian or Italianate setting
1627 Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet a French bishop and theologian, renowned for his sermons and other addresses. He has been considered by many to be one of the most brilliant orators of all time and a masterly French stylist
1630 Michael Willmann a German painter. The Baroque artist became known as the "Silesian Rembrandt"
1643 Solomon Stoddard the pastor of the Congregationalist Church in Northampton, He succeeded the Rev. Eleazer Mather, marrying his widow around 1670. Stoddard significantly liberalized church policy while promoting more power for the clergy, decrying drinking and extravagance, and urging the preaching of hellfire and the Judgment. The major religious leader of what was then the frontier, he was concerned with the lives of second-generation Puritans. The well-known theologian Jonathan Edwards was his grandson, because Solomon's daughter Esther Stoddard was Jonathan's mother
1657 Sophia Alekseyevna of Russia regent of Russia from 1682 to 1689. She allied herself with a singularly capable courtier and politician, Prince Vasily Galitzine, to install herself during the minority of her brother Ivan V and half-brother Peter Her regency was carried out with a firm and heavy fist. She did not hesitate to use violent tactics to promote her agenda. The activity of this "bogatyr-tsarevna" was all the more extraordinary, as upper-class Muscovite women, confined to the upper-floor terem and veiled and guarded in public, invariably were kept aloof from any open involvement in politics
1677 Giovanni Carlo Maria Clari an Italian musical composer and maestro di cappella at Pistoia. He was born at Pisa. He gained his initial grounding in musical education from his father, a violinist originally from Rome who was employed in the service of the church of the Cavalieri di Stefano in Pisa
1677 Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr a German mathematician, astronomer, and cartographer.
1696 Alphonsus Maria de' Liguori C.Ss.R. was an Italian Catholic bishop, spiritual writer, scholastic philosopher and theologian
1719 Abraham Gotthelf Kästner a German mathematician and epigrammatist.
1722 Samuel Adams an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. As a politician in colonial Massachusetts, Adams was a leader of the movement that became the American Revolution, and was one of the architects of the principles of American republicanism that shaped the political culture of the United States. He was a second cousin to President John Adams
1724 Anton Friedrich Büsching a German geographer, historian, educator and theologian. His Erdbeschreibung was the first geographical work of any scientific merit. He also did significant work on behalf of education
1725 Patrick d'Arcy born in the west of Ireland. His family, who were Catholics, suffered under the penal laws. In 1739 d'Arcy was sent abroad by his parents to an uncle in Paris. He was tutored in mathematics by Jean-Baptiste Clairaut, and became a friend of Jean-Baptiste's son, Alexis-Claude Clairaut, , who was a brilliant young mathematician. d'Arcy made original contributions to dynamics. He is best known for his part in the discovery of the principle of angular momentum, in a form which was known as "the principle of areas," which he announced in 1746. See the article on areal velocity. d'Arcy also had an illustrious military career in the French army. He obtained the title of "Count" in the French nobility. He was a generous patron of Irish refugees in France. In addition to his contributions to dynamics, he performed research on artillery and on electricity. An experiment of his, reported in 1765, on visual perception is often referred to: it involved a rotating disk on which a burning coal was placed; when the disk was spun at an angular velocity exceeding seven revolutions per second, a full circle of light was perceived. d'Arcy was elected to the Academie Royale des Sciences in 1749. He died from cholera in Paris in October 1779
1729 Michael Denis an Austrian poet, bibliographer, and lepidopterist.
1739 Francis Russell Marquess of Tavistock a British politician and the eldest son of the 4th Duke of Bedford.
1752 Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier a member of the Académie française and the Choiseul-Gouffier family, French ambassador to the Ottoman Empire from 1784 until the fall of the French monarchy and a scholar of ancient Greece.
1761 Karl Gustav von Baggovut a lieutenant general of the Russian Empire who took part both in Napoleonic Wars and Finnish War. His family was originally Norwegian, but had moved to Sweden in the 16th century, then to Estonia in the 17th century
1765 Antoine Philippe de La Trémoille a French noble and royalist notable for his military involvement against the French Revolution.
1772 Antonio Casimir Cartellieri a Polish-Austrian composer, violinist, conductor, and voice teacher. His son was the spa physician Paul Cartellieri
1772 Sándor Kisfaludy a Hungarian lyric poet, Himfy's Loves his chief work, was less distinguished as a dramatist. He is considered to be the first romantic poet from Hungary. He was the brother of Károly Kisfaludy. He has been set to music by Zoltán Kodály
1772 Martha Jefferson Randolph the daughter of Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, and his wife Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson. Born at Monticello, near Charlottesville, Virginia she was named for her mother and Martha Washington, wife of George Washington. Her nickname was Patsy
1781 William I of Württemberg the second King of Württemberg from 30 October 1816 until his death.
1783 Agustín de Iturbide a Mexican army general and politician. During the Mexican War of Independence, he built a successful political and military coalition that took control in Mexico City on 27 September 1821, decisively gaining independence. After the liberation of Mexico was secured, he was proclaimed President of the Regency in 1821. A year later, he was announced as the Constitutional Emperor of the new nation, reigning as Emperor briefly from 19 May 1822 to 19 March 1823. He is credited as the original designer of the first Mexican flag
1789 Jakob Alt a German painter and lithographer.
1792 George Cruikshank a British caricaturist and book illustrator, praised as the "modern Hogarth" during his life. His book illustrations for his friend Charles Dickens, and many other authors, reached an international audience
1803 Samuel Francis Du Pont an American naval officer who achieved the rank of Rear Admiral in the United States Navy, and a member of the prominent Du Pont family; he was the only member of his generation to use a capital He served prominently during the Mexican-American War and the Civil War, was superintendent of the United States Naval Academy, and made significant contributions to the modernization of the U.S. Navy
1805 George Müller a Christian evangelist and Director of the Ashley Down orphanage in Bristol, England, cared for 10,024 orphans in his life. He was well known for providing an education to the children under his care, to the point where he was accused of raising the poor above their natural station in life. He also established 117 schools which offered Christian education to over 120,000 children, many of them being orphans
1809 Raphael Semmes an officer in the United States Navy from 1826 to 1860 and the Confederate States Navy from 1860 to 1865. During the American Civil War he was captain of the famous commerce raider CSS Alabama, which took a record sixty-five prizes. Late in the war he was promoted to rear admiral and also served briefly as a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army. Admiral/General Semmes is the only North American to have the distinction of holding both ranks simultaneously
1814 Daniel Kirkwood an American astronomer.
1818 Hermann Kolbe a seminal contributor in the birth of modern organic chemistry as Professor at Marburg and Leipzig. Kolbe coined the term synthesis, and contributed to the philosophical demise of vitalism through synthesis of the biologic natural product acetic acid from carbon disulfide, to structural theory via modifications to the idea of "radicals" and accurate prediction of the existence of secondary and tertiary alcohols, and to the emerging array of organic reactions through his Kolbe electrolysis of carboxylate salts, the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction in the preparation of aspirin, and the Kolbe nitrile synthesis. After studies with Wöhler and Bunsen, Kolbe was involved with the early internationalization of chemistry through overseas work in London , and rose through the ranks of his field to edit the Journal für Praktische Chemie, to be elected to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and to win the Royal Society of London's Davy Medal in the year of his death. Despite these accomplishments and his training a storied next generation of chemists , Kolbe is remembered for editing the Journal for more than a decade, where his rejection of Kekulé's structure of benzene, van't Hoff's theory on the origin of chirality, and von Baeyer's reforms of nomenclature were personally critical and linguistically violent. Kolbe died of a heart attack in Leipzig at age 68, six years after the death of his wife, Charlotte. He was survived by four children
1820 Wilhelm Siegmund Teuffel born at Ludwigsburg in the Kingdom of Württemberg. In 1849 he was appointed extraordinary, in 1857 ordinary professor in the university of Tübingen, which post he held till his death
1821 Henri-Frédéric Amiel a Swiss philosopher, poet and critic.
1824 Benjamin Apthorp Gould a pioneering American astronomer. He is noted for creating the Astronomical Journal, discovering the Gould Belt, and for founding of the Argentine National Observatory and the Argentine National Weather Service
1824 William "Bull" Nelson one of four Union Army officers from Kentucky who rose to the rank of Major General out of the total of sixty-seven who served in the American Civil War. Ebenezer Hannaford served in the 6th Ohio Infantry under Nelson and he wrote “no commander during the war enjoyed the confidence of his troops in a greater degree than did Nelson at the head of the Fourth Division Army of the Ohio, which might almost be said to have been his own creation.” Those men had no love for the harsh ways of “Big Buster,” but they genuinely valued his willingness to openly chastise officers who shirked their responsibilities. That later trait caused a fellow general officer Jefferson Davis to shoot and kill the unarmed Nelson and this has routinely overshadowed the contributions that both men made to the Union cause in the American Civil War
1826 Armand David a Lazarist missionary Catholic priest as well as a zoologist and a botanist.
1827 Georges-Casimir Dessaulles a businessman, statesman and Canadian senator. Dessaulles holds the record for the oldest serving politician. Appointed to the Canadian Senate representing the Province of Quebec in 1907 at age 80, Dessaulles served for 23 years before dying at age 102
1827 Pierre Tirard a French politician.