Born on September 30

1227 Pope Nicholas IV Pope from 22 February 1288 to his death in 1292. He was the first Franciscan to be elected pope
1530 Girolamo Mercuriale an Italian philologist and physician, most famous for his work De Arte Gymnastica.
1550 Michael Maestlin a German astronomer and mathematician, known for being the mentor of Johannes Kepler.
1594 Antoine Girard de Saint-Amant born near Rouen.
1621 Susannah Martin a woman executed for witchcraft during the Salem witch trials.
1658 Elisabeth Eleonore of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel the eldest daughter of Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and his wife Juliane of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg.
1679 Jacques Cassard a French naval officer and privateer.
1689 Jacques Aubert a French composer and violinist.
1700 Stanisław Konarski a Polish pedagogue, educational reformer, political writer, poet, dramatist, Piarist monk and precursor of the Enlightenment in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
1707 Pietro Rotari an Italian painter of the Baroque period. Born in Verona, he led a peripatetic career, and died in St Petersburg, where he had traveled to paint for the Russian court
1710 John Russell 4th Duke of Bedford an 18th-century British statesman. He was the fourth son of Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford, by his wife, Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of John Howland of Streatham, Surrey. Known as Lord John Russell, he married in October 1731 Diana Spencer, daughter of Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland; became Duke of Bedford on his brother’s death a year later; and having lost his first wife in 1735, married in April 1737 Lady Gertrude Leveson-Gower , daughter of John Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Gower
1714 Étienne Bonnot de Condillac a French philosopher and epistemologist, who studied in such areas as psychology and the philosophy of the mind.
1732 Jacques Necker a French statesman of Swiss birth and finance minister of Louis XVI, a post he held in the lead-up to the French Revolution in 1789.
1737 Morten Thrane Brünnich a Danish zoologist and mineralogist.
1743 Christian Ehregott Weinlig a German composer and cantor of Dresden's Kreuzkirche.
1747 Friedrich Justin Bertuch a German publisher and patron of the arts. He co-founded the Fürstliche freie Zeichenschule Weimar with the painter Georg Melchior Kraus in 1776. He was the father of the writer and journalist Karl Bertuch
1752 Justin Heinrich Knecht a German composer, organist, and music theorist.
1758 Alexander Dmitriev-Mamonov a lover of Catherine II of Russia from 1786 to 1789.
1759 Ivan Essen a Russian lieutenant general and military governor of Riga at the start of the Patriotic War of 1812.
1765 José María Morelos a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary rebel leader who led the Mexican War of Independence movement, assuming its leadership after the execution of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in 1811. He was later captured by the Spanish colonial authorities and executed for treason in 1815
1783 Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria a Viceroy of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia from 1818 to 1848. He was also an Archduke of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia
1785 Ange Hyacinthe Maxence baron de Damas a French general and Minister.
1788 FitzRoy Somerset 1st Baron Raglan a British Army officer. As a junior officer he served in the Peninsular War and the Hundred Days, latterly as military secretary to the Duke of Wellington. He also took part in politics as Tory Member of Parliament for Truro before becoming Master-General of the Ordnance. He became commander of the British troops sent to the Crimea in 1854: while his primary objective was to defend Constantinople he was ordered to besiege the Russian Port of Sevastopol. After an early success at the Battle of Alma, a failure to deliver orders with sufficient clarity caused the fateful Charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle of Balaclava. Despite further success at the Battle of Inkerman, a piecemeal allied assault on Sevastopol in June 1855 was a complete failure. Somerset died later that month from a mixture of dysentery and clinical depression
1794 Carl Joseph Begas a German historical painter born at Heinsberg near Aachen. His father, a retired judge, destined him for the legal profession, but the boy's tastes pointed definitely in another direction. Even at school he was remarked for his wonderful skill in drawing and painting, and in 1812 he was permitted to visit Paris in order to perfect himself in his art
1796 Princess Frederica Wilhelmina of Prussia a daughter of Prince Louis Charles of Prussia and Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. She was a member of the House of Hohenzollern. By her marriage to Leopold IV, Duke of Anhalt-Dessau, she would become Duchess consort of Anhalt-Dessau
1800 Decimus Burton a prolific English architect and garden designer. A protegé of John Nash, he is particularly associated with projects in the classical style in London parks, including buildings at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and London Zoo, and with the layout and architecture of the seaside towns of Fleetwood and St Leonards-on-Sea, and the spa town Tunbridge Wells
1801 Jerónimo Espejo an Argentine general, enlisted in the Army of the Andes. He fought in the battles of Chacabuco, Cancha Rayada and Maipú. He also fought in the Battle of Ituzaingó, of the War with Brazil. He wrote historic essays about the campaign of the Army of the Andes, José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar. Those essays were consulted by Bartolomé Mitre to write the book Historia de San Martín y de la emancipación sudamericana
1802 Antoine Jérôme Balard a French chemist and one of the discoverers of bromine.
1803 Gustav von Alvensleben a Prussian General der Infanterie.
1805 Samuel P. Heintzelman a United States Army General. He served in the Seminole War, the Mexican-American War, the Yuma War and the Cortina Troubles. During the American Civil War he was a prominent figure in the early months of the war rising to the command of a corps
1811 Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach the Queen of Prussia and the first German Empress as the consort of William I, German Emperor.
1813 Karl Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg the second Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Karl was the eldest son of Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel and an elder brother of Christian IX of Denmark. Karl ascended to the throne of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg upon his father's death on 27 February 1831
1813 John Rae (explorer) a Scottish doctor who explored Northern Canada, surveyed parts of the Northwest Passage and reported the fate of the Franklin Expedition. In 1846–47 he explored the Gulf of Boothia northwest of Hudson Bay. In 1848–51 he explored the Arctic coast near Victoria Island. In 1854 he went from Boothia to the Arctic coast and learned the fate of Franklin. He was noted for physical stamina, skill at hunting and boat handling, use of native methods and the ability to travel long distances with little equipment while living off the land
1825 Samuel Newitt Wood an American attorney and politician.
1825 Josef Dachs an Austrian pianist and music teacher born in Regensburg. He received his music education by Simon Sechter and Carl Czerny, worked as a concert pianist and premiered many of his works. He became professor at the Vienna Conservatory in 1850. Among others, he taught Hugo Wolf, Ferdinand Löwe, and Russian pianist and composer Josef Rubinstein. He died in Vienna
1827 Ellis H. Roberts a United States Representative from New York and 20th Treasurer of the United States.
1829 Franz Reuleaux a mechanical engineer and a lecturer of the Berlin Royal Technical Academy, later appointed as the President of the Academy. He was often called the father of kinematics. He was a leader in his profession, contributing to many important domains of science and knowledge
1832 Ann Jarvis a social activist and community organizer during the American Civil War era. She is recognized as the mother who inspired Mother’s Day and as a founder Mother's Day movements, and her daughter, Anna Marie Jarvis , is recognized as the founder of the Mother's Day holiday in the United States
1832 Frederick Roberts 1st Earl Roberts a British soldier who was one of the most successful commanders of the 19th century. He served in the Indian rebellion, the Expedition to Abyssinia and the Second Anglo-Afghan War before leading British Forces to success in the Second Boer War. He also became the last Commander-in-Chief of the Forces before the post was abolished in 1904
1833 Ferdinand von Saar an Austrian novelist, playwright and poet.
1833 Henri Jordan a German scholar of Roman topography in the 19th century.
1835 Tommaso Salvadori an Italian zoologist and ornithologist.
1836 Remigio Morales Bermúdez president of Peru from 1890 to 1894. His predecessor until 1890 was Andrés Avelino Cáceres, his successor was Justiniano Borgoño in 1894. He died while still in office
1839 Olga Feodorovna of Baden the youngest daughter of Grand Duke Leopold of Baden and Sophie Wilhelmine of Sweden.
1840 Johan Svendsen a Norwegian composer, conductor and violinist. Born in Christiania , Norway, he lived most his life in Copenhagen, Denmark. Svendsen's output includes two symphonies, a violin concerto, a cello concerto, and the Romance for violin, as well as a number of Norwegian Rhapsodies for orchestra. At one time Svendsen was an intimate friend of the German composer Richard Wagner
1841 Mykhailo Drahomanov a Ukrainian political theorist, economist, historian, philosopher, ethnographer and public figure in Kiev. Born to a noble family of Petro Yakymovych Drahomanov who was of a Cossack descent. Mykhailo Drahomanov started his education at home, then studied at the Hadiach school, Poltava senior school and Kiev University. He was also an uncle of Ukrainian poet Larysa Kosach and brother - Olha Drahomanova-Kosach
1843 Duchess Mathilde Ludovika in Bavaria the fourth daughter of Maximilian, Duke in Bavaria and Princess Ludovika of Bavaria. Her mother was the youngest daughter King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria by his second wife Margravine Karoline of Baden
1848 Robert Walker Macbeth a Scottish painter, etcher and watercolourist, specialising in pastoral landscape and the rustic genre. His father was the portrait painter Norman Macbeth and his niece Ann Macbeth
1849 Michał Bobrzyński a Polish historian.
1851 Auguste Molinier a French historian.