Born on September 4

1241 Alexander III of Scotland King of Scots from 1249 to his death.
1249 Amadeus V Count of Savoy the Count of Savoy from 1285 to 1323. He established Chambéry as his seat. He was the son of Thomas II of Savoy and Beatrice Fieschi
1338 Al-Nasir Muhammad Salah al-Din an imam of Yemen who ruled during the period 1372-1391. He was a Zaydi imam and a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad
1383 Antipope Felix V an Italian nobleman, the son of Amadeus VII, Count of Savoy and Bonne of Berry. He was surnamed the Peaceful. Born at Chambéry, he was the Count of Savoy from 1391 to 1416 and was elevated by Emperor Sigismund to the Duke of Savoy in 1416. Amadeus was elected, as antipope Felix V, by the Council of Basel-Ferrara-Florence and reigned from November 1439 to April 1449
1455 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham KG played a major role in King Richard III's rise and fall. He is also one of the primary suspects in the disappearance of the Princes in the Tower. Buckingham was related to the royal family of England in many different ways, but his connections were all through daughters of younger sons. His chances of inheriting the throne would have seemed remote, but he played the role of a 'kingmaker' for Richard III and, unsuccessfully, for Henry VII
1557 Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow a German noble and Queen of Denmark and Norway. She was the mother of King Christian IV of Denmark. She was Regent of Schleswig-Holstein 1590–94
1563 Wanli Emperor the thirteenth emperor of the Ming Dynasty in China. His era name means "Ten thousand calendars". Born Zhu Yijun, he was the Longqing Emperor's third son. His rule of forty-eight years was the longest in the Ming dynasty and it witnessed the steady decline of the dynasty
1596 Constantijn Huygens a Dutch Golden Age poet and composer. He was secretary to two Princes of Orange: Frederick Henry and William II, and the father of the scientist Christiaan Huygens
1620 Ernest Gottlieb Prince of Anhalt-Plötzkau a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Plötzkau.
1634 Robert South an English churchman, known for his combative preaching.
1681 Carl Heinrich Biber a late Baroque violinist and composer.
1685 Johann Adolf II Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels the last duke of Saxe-Weissenfels-Querfurt and a member of the House of Wettin. He was also a commander in the Saxon army
1702 Legall de Kermeur a French chess player. His name is variously written Kermur, Sire de Legalle, by Twiss, and Kermur and Kermuy, Sire de Legal, by others. In the List of Subscribers to Philidor's second edition it stands as in Twiss, but the spelling was, probably, in both cases Philidor's own
1717 Job Orton an English dissenting minister.
1722 Thomas Pownall a British politician and colonial official. He was governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay from 1757 to 1760, and afterward served in the British Parliament. He travelled widely in the North American colonies prior to the American Revolutionary War, opposed Parliamentary attempts to tax the colonies, and was a minority advocate of colonial positions until the Revolution
1729 Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel queen of Denmark between 1752 and 1766, second consort of king Frederick V of Denmark and Norway, mother of the prince-regent Hereditary Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway and herself de facto regent 1772–1784, King Christian VIII of Denmark descends from her.
1729 Louis Dauphin of France (1729–1765) the only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie Leszczyńska. Son of the king, Louis was styled Fils de France. As heir apparent, he became Dauphin of France. However, he died before ascending to the throne. Three of his sons became kings of France: Louis XVI , Louis XVIII and Charles X
1745 Shneur Zalman of Liadi an Orthodox Rabbi, and the founder and first Rebbe of Chabad, a branch of Hasidic Judaism, then based in Liadi, Imperial Russia. He was the author of many works, and is best known for Shulchan Aruch HaRav, Tanya and his Siddur Torah Or compiled according to the Nusach Ari
1755 Axel von Fersen the Younger a Swedish count, Marshal of the Realm of Sweden, a Lieutenant General in the Royal Swedish Army, one of the Lords of the Realm, aide-de-camp to Rochambeau in the American Revolutionary War, diplomat and statesman. He is famous in history as the friend of Queen Marie Antoinette of France, and because of his death at the hands of a Stockholm lynch mob
1765 Roger de Damas a French Army officer and Royalist general who fought against the French Revolutionary forces for the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Naples.
1768 François-René de Chateaubriand a French writer, politician, diplomat and historian. He is considered the founder of Romanticism in French literature. Descended from an old aristocratic family from Brittany, Chateaubriand was a royalist by political disposition and in an age when a significant part of the intelligentsia was turning against the Church, authored the Génie du christianisme in defence of the Catholic faith. It is his autobiography Mémoires d'outre-tombe , however, that is nowadays generally considered his most accomplished work
1773 Joseph zu Salm-Reifferscheidt-Dyck a German amateur botanist and owner of Castle Dyck. Dyck was a member of an important aristocratic family that had ruled a small territory until the Mediatisation of small German states in the early 19th century
1775 Jean-François Le Gonidec a Breton grammarian who codified the Breton language.
1776 Stephen Whitney one of the wealthiest merchants in New York City in the first half of the 19th century. His fortune was considered second only to that of John Jacob Astor. As a prominent citizen of the rapidly growing city, he helped to build some of its institutions, including the Merchants' Exchange Building, the first permanent home of the New York stock exchange
1787 Ninomiya Sontoku a prominent 19th-century Japanese agricultural leader, philosopher, moralist and economist.
1789 Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupré a French botanist.
1791 Jan Svatopluk Presl a Bohemian natural scientist.
1791 Robert Knox a Scottish anatomist, zoologist, ethnologist and doctor. He was the most popular lecturer in anatomy in Britain, where he introduced the theory of transcendental anatomy, but is now best known for his involvement in the Burke and Hare murders. Difficulty in obtaining cadavers for dissection after the passage of the Anatomy Act and disagreements with professional colleagues ruined his career, and a move to London did not improve matters. His later pessimistic view of humanity contrasted sharply with his youthful attachment to the ideas of Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire
1795 Friedrich August von Alberti a German geologist whose ground-breaking 1834 publication recognized the unity of the three characteristic strata that compose the sedimentary deposits of the Triassic period in Northern Europe. From the fossils contained in the three distinct layers— of red bed sandstones, capped by chalk , followed by black shales— that are found throughout Germany and Northwest Europe, and are called the 'Trias' , Alberti detected that they formed a single stratigraphic formation; today it would be termed a system. He identified the Triassic as bearing a unique fossil fauna, bounded by the Permian extinction below and by another extinction above
1796 Peter Fendi an Austrian court painter, portrait and genre painter, engraver, and lithographer. He was one of the leading artists of the Biedermeier period
1796 Karl Eberhard Herwarth von Bittenfeld a Prussian field marshal.
1797 Raynold Kaufgetz a Swiss soldier, politician and economist, best known for devising cyclical fiat currency theory. Kaufgetz was also an amateur biologist and animal breeder
1798 Costantino Patrizi Naro a long-serving Italian Cardinal who became Dean of the College of Cardinals. Cardinal Benedetto Naro was his great-uncle
1798 Albert Clinton Horton a Texan politician, and the first Lieutenant Governor of Texas serving under Governor James Henderson.
1800 Pauline Therese of Württemberg a daughter of Louis of Württemberg and Princess Henriette of Nassau-Weilburg. She married her first cousin King William I of Württemberg and was his consort
1802 Marcus Whitman an American physician and missionary in the Oregon Country. Along with his wife Narcissa Whitman, he started a mission to the Cayuse in what is now southeastern Washington state in 1836. The area later developed as a trading post and stop along the Oregon Trail, and the city of Walla Walla, Washington developed near there
1803 Sarah Childress Polk the wife of the 11th President of the United States, James Polk, serving as First Lady of the United States from 1845 to 1849.
1805 Robert Pashley a 19th-century English traveller and economist.
1807 William Ruschenberger a surgeon for the United States Navy, a naturalist, and an author.
1809 Manuel Montt a Chilean statesman and scholar. He was twice elected President of Chile between 1851 and 1861
1809 Federico Luigi Menabrea an Italian general, statesman and mathematician who served as the Prime Minister of Italy from 1867 to 1869.
1809 Juliusz Słowacki a Polish Romantic poet. He is considered one of the "Three Bards" of Polish literature — a major figure in the Polish Romantic period, and the father of modern Polish drama. His works often feature elements of Slavic pagan traditions, Polish history, mysticism and orientalism. His style includes the employment of neologisms and irony. His primary genre was the drama, but he also wrote lyric poetry. His most popular works include the dramas Kordian and Balladyna and the poems Beniowski and Testament mój
1818 Richard Congreve an English philosopher, one of the leading figures in the specifically religious interpretation of Auguste Comte's form of positivism. In that capacity he founded the London Positivist Society in 1867 and the Comtist Church of Humanity in 1878. He also wrote political tracts
1819 Arthur von Ramberg an Austrian-born painter who worked in Germany.
1824 Anton Bruckner an Austrian composer known for his symphonies, masses, and motets. The first are considered emblematic of the final stage of Austro-German Romanticism because of their rich harmonic language, strongly polyphonic character, and considerable length. Bruckner's compositions helped to define contemporary musical radicalism, owing to their dissonances, unprepared modulations, and roving harmonies
1825 Dadabhai Naoroji a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indian political and social leader. He was a member of parliament in the United Kingdom House of Commons between 1892 and 1895, and the first Asian to be a British MP
1825 Richard Maack a 19th-century Russian naturalist, geographer, and anthropologist. He is most known for his exploration of the Russian Far East and Siberia, particularly the Ussuri and Amur River valleys. He wrote some of the first scientific descriptions of the natural history of remote Siberia and collected many biological specimens, many of which were original type specimens of previously unknown species
1826 Martin Wiberg born in Viby, Scania, Sweden, enrolled at Lund University in 1845 and became a Doctor of Philosophy in 1850.
1827 William Snodgrass (clergyman) a Canadian Presbyterian minister and the sixth Principal of Queen's College, now Queen's University.
1832 Antonio Agliardi an Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal, archbishop, and papal diplomat. He was born at Cologno al Serio, in what is now the Province of Bergamo