Born on September 5

702 Abū Ḥanīfa the founder of the Sunni Hanafi school of fiqh. He is also considered a renowned Islamic scholar and personality by Zaydi Shia Muslims. He was often called "the Great Imam"
1187 Louis VIII of France a Capetian King of France who reigned from 1223 to 1226, he was also disputed King of England from 1216 to 1217. Louis VIII was born in Paris, the son of Philip II and Isabelle of Hainaut from whom he inherited the County of Artois
1201 Alix Duchess of Brittany hereditary Duchess of Brittany and 5th Countess of Richmond from 1203 to her death.
1319 Peter IV of Aragon the King of Aragon, King of Sardinia and Corsica , King of Valencia , and Count of Barcelona from 1336 until his death. He deposed James III of Majorca and made himself King of Majorca in 1344. His reign was occupied with attempts to strengthen the crown against the Union of Aragon and other such devices of the nobility, with their near constant revolts, and with foreign wars, in Sardinia, Sicily, the Mezzogiorno, Greece, and the Balearics. His wars in Greece made him Duke of Athens and Neopatria in 1381
1451 Isabel Neville Duchess of Clarence the elder daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick , and Anne de Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick. She was the wife of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence. She was also the elder sister of Anne Neville, who was Princess of Wales, by her first marriage and Queen consort of England by her second
1500 Maria of Jever the last ruler of the Lordship of Jever from the Wiemken family.
1533 Jacopo Zabarella an Italian Aristotelian philosopher and logician.
1540 Magnus Duke of Holstein a Prince of Denmark and a member of the House of Oldenburg. As a vassal of Ivan IV of Russia, he was the titular King of Livonia from 1570 to 1578
1567 Date Masamune a regional strongman of Japan's Azuchi-Momoyama period through early Edo period. Heir to a long line of powerful daimyo in the Tōhoku region, he went on to found the modern-day city of Sendai. An outstanding tactician, he was made all the more iconic for his missing eye, and Date was often called dokuganryū , or the "one-eyed dragon"
1568 Tommaso Campanella an Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet.
1638 Louis XIV of France a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1643 until his death. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a major country in European history
1641 Robert Spencer 2nd Earl of Sunderland an English statesman and nobleman from the Spencer family. His sarcasm and bad temper, and his reputation as a ruthless advocate of absolute monarchy, made him numerous enemies, and he was forced to flee abroad in 1688, but later underwent a political rehabilitation. In his last years he appeared in a somewhat different light as a disinterested adviser to the Crown who neither sought nor wished for office. By the standards of the Restoration Court, his private life was remarkably free from scandal
1648 Athanasius of Brest-Litovsk a saint and martyr of the Russian Orthodox Church. He was killed by Catholics for opposition to the Union of Brest. Saint Athanasius is commemorated on September 5
1651 William Dampier today Australia, and the first person to circumnavigate the world three times. He has also been described as Australia's first natural historian, as well as one of the most important British explorers of the period between Sir Walter Raleigh and James Cook
1664 Louis Antoine de Pardaillan de Gondrin a French nobleman. He was painted by Rigaud
1666 Gottfried Arnold a German Lutheran theologian and historian.
1667 Giovanni Girolamo Saccheri an Italian Jesuit priest, scholastic philosopher, and mathematician.
1694 František Václav Míča a Czech conductor and composer.
1695 Carl Gustaf Tessin a Swedish politician and son of architect Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and Hedvig Eleonora Stenbock. He was one of the most brilliant personages of his day, and the most prominent representative of French culture in Sweden. He was also a fine orator
1704 Maurice Quentin de La Tour a French Rococo portraitist who worked primarily with pastels. Among his most famous subjects were Voltaire, Rousseau, Louis XV and Madame de Pompadour
1707 John Forbes (British Army officer) a British general in the French and Indian War. He is best known for leading the Forbes Expedition that captured the French outpost at Fort Duquesne and for naming the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania after British Secretary of State William Pitt the Elder
1711 Johann Nathanael Lieberkühn a German physician. His middle name is sometimes misspelled Nathaniel
1722 Frederick Christian Elector of Saxony the Prince-Elector of Saxony for less than three months in 1763. He was a member of the House of Wettin. He was the third but eldest surviving son of Frederick Augustus II, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, by his wife, Maria Josepha of Austria
1725 Jean-Étienne Montucla a French mathematician.
1733 Christoph Martin Wieland a German poet and writer.
1734 Jean-Benjamin de La Borde a French composer, writer on music and fermier générale. Born into an aristocratic family, he studied violin under Antoine Dauvergne and composition under Jean-Philippe Rameau. From 1762 to 1774, he served at the court of Louis XV as premier valet de la chambre, losing his post on the death of the king. He wrote many operas, mostly comic, and a four-volume collection of songs for solo voice, Choix de chansons mises en musique illustrated by Jean-Michel Moreau. Many of the songs from the collection were later published individually through the efforts of the English folksong collector Lucy Etheldred Broadwood. His Essai sur la musique ancienne et moderne was published in 1780. La Borde was guillotined during the French Revolution in 1794
1735 Johann Christian Bach a composer of the Classical era, the eleventh surviving child and youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach. He is sometimes referred to as "the London Bach" or "the English Bach", due to his time spent living in the British capital, where he came to be known as John Bach. He is noted for influencing the concerto style of Mozart
1747 Natalia Zagryazhskaya a Russian philanthropist, salonist and lady-in-waiting. She was a leading member of Saint Petersburg society from the 1770s until her death in 1837, and is often mentioned in contemporary memoirs and diaries
1750 Robert Fergusson a Scottish poet. After formal education at the University of St Andrews, Fergusson followed an essentially bohemian life course in Edinburgh, the city of his birth, then at the height of intellectual and cultural ferment as part of the Scottish enlightenment. Many of his extant poems were printed from 1771 onwards in Walter Ruddiman's Weekly Magazine, and a collected works was first published early in 1773. Despite a short life, his career was highly influential, especially through its impact on Robert Burns. He wrote both Scottish English and the Scots language, and it is his vivid and masterly writing in the latter leid for which he is principally acclaimed
1751 François Joseph Westermann a French general of the Revolutionary Wars and political figure of the French Revolution.
1764 Henriette Herz best known for the "salonnieres" or literary salons that she started with a group of emancipated Jews in Prussia.
1769 John Shortland a naval officer, the eldest son of John Shortland. Shortland joined the Royal Navy as a midshipman and went to Quebec in a transport commanded by his father. From 1783 to 1787 he served in the West Indies. In 1787 he was master's mate in the Sirius when the First Fleet sailed for Australia. Shortland spent nearly five years in Australia including time on Norfolk Island where Sirius was wrecked in 1790. In 1792 he returned to England
1771 Archduke Charles Duke of Teschen an Austrian field-marshal, the third son of emperor Leopold II and his wife Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain. He was also the younger brother of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor. Despite being epileptic, Charles achieved respect both as a commander and as a reformer of the Austrian army. He was considered one of Napoleon's most formidable opponents
1772 Fath-Ali Shah Qajar the second Qajar Shah of Persia. He reigned from 17 June 1797 until his death
1774 Caspar David Friedrich a 19th-century German Romantic landscape painter, generally considered the most important German artist of his generation. He is best known for his mid-period allegorical landscapes which typically feature contemplative figures silhouetted against night skies, morning mists, barren trees or Gothic ruins. His primary interest as an artist was the contemplation of nature, and his often symbolic and anti-classical work seeks to convey a subjective, emotional response to the natural world. Friedrich's paintings characteristically set a human presence in diminished perspective amid expansive landscapes, reducing the figures to a scale that, according to the art historian Christopher John Murray, directs "the viewer's gaze towards their metaphysical dimension"
1781 Anton Diabelli an Austrian music publisher, editor and composer. Best known in his time as a publisher, he is most familiar today as the composer of the waltz on which Ludwig van Beethoven wrote his set of thirty-three Diabelli Variations
1787 François Sulpice Beudant born in Paris.
1788 Jean-Pierre Abel-Rémusat a French sinologist best known as the first Chair of Sinology at the Collège de France. Rémusat studied medicine as a young man, but his discovery of a Chinese herbal treatise enamored him with the Chinese language, and he spent five years teaching himself to read After publishing several well-received articles on Chinese topics, a chair in Chinese was created at the Collège de France in 1814 and Rémusat was placed in it
1789 Clarke Abel a British surgeon and naturalist.
1791 Giacomo Meyerbeer a German opera composer of Jewish birth who has been described as perhaps the most successful stage composer of the nineteenth century. With his 1831 opera Robert le diable and its successors, he gave the genre of grand opera 'decisive character'. Meyerbeer's grand opera style was achieved by his merging of German orchestra style with Italian vocal tradition. These were employed in the context of sensational and melodramatic libretti created by Eugène Scribe and were enhanced by the up-to-date theatre technology of the Paris Opéra. They set a standard which helped to maintain Paris as the opera capital of the nineteenth century
1792 Ours-Pierre-Armand Petit-Dufrénoy a French geologist and mineralogist.
1795 Étienne-Paschal Taché a Canadian doctor, politician and one of the Fathers of Confederation.
1796 Pierre-Théodore Verhaegen a Belgian lawyer, founder of the Université libre de Bruxelles, and liberal politician. He was chairman of the Belgian House of Parliament
1805 James W. Flanagan an American merchant, lawyer, and farmer from Henderson, Texas. He served as the eleventh Lieutenant Governor of Texas in 1869 and 1870, and then represented Texas in the United States Senate from 1870 to 1875
1806 Karl Wilhelm Isenberg spelt or known by names Carl Wilhelm Isenberg or Charles William Isenberg or W. Isenberg or Carl Isenberg or Charles Isenberg, was a German Church Missionary Society missionary and linguist to East Africa and Western India
1806 Christophe Léon Louis Juchault de Lamoricière a French general.
1807 Johann Wilhelm Schirmer a German landscape artist from Jülich, within the Prussian Duchy of Jülich.
1815 Karl Wilhelm (conductor) a German choral director. He is best known as the composer of the song “Die Wacht am Rhein.”
1816 Charles Tulasne a French physician, mycologist and illustrator born in Langeais in the département of Indre-et-Loire.
1816 Charles Lasègue a French physician born in Paris.