Born on September 8

394 Arbogast (general) a Frankish general in the Roman Empire. It has been stated by some ancient historians that he was the son of Flavius Bauto, Valentinian II's former magister militum and protector before Arbogast, but modern scholars largely discount this claim
685 Emperor Xuanzong of Tang the seventh emperor of the Tang dynasty in China, reigning from 712 to 756. His reign of 43 years was the longest during the Tang Dynasty. In the early half of his reign he was a diligent and astute ruler, ably assisted by capable chancellors like Yao Chong and Song Jing, and was credited with bringing Tang China to a pinnacle of culture and power
801 Ansgar an Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. The see of Hamburg was designated a mission to bring Christianity to Northern Europe, and Ansgar became known as the "Apostle of the North"
829 Ali al-Hadi the tenth of the Twelve Imams. His full name is ‘Alī ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Alī. The exact date of his birth and death are unknown, but it is generally accepted that he was born between 827–830 CE and he died in 868 CE
1157 Alexander Neckam an English scholar, teacher, theologian and abbot of Cirencester from 1213 to his death in 1217.
1157 Richard I of England King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy , Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Count of Nantes, and Overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard Cœur de Lion or Richard the Lionheart because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior. The Muslims called him Melek-Ric or Malek al-Inkitar. He was also known in Occitan as Oc e No , because of his reputation for terseness
1209 Sancho II of Portugal King of Portugal from 1223 to 1247. He was succeeded by his brother, King Afonso III, in 1247
1271 Charles Martel of Anjou the eldest son of king Charles II of Naples and Maria of Hungary, the daughter of King Stephen V of Hungary.
1380 Bernardino of Siena a Catholic saint. He is known in the Roman Catholic Church as “the Apostle of Italy” for his efforts to revive the country's Catholic faith during the 15th century. His preaching was frequently directed against gambling, witchcraft, sodomy and usury - particularly as practiced by Jews
1380 Alexander Peresvet a Russian Orthodox Christian monk who fought in a single combat with the Tatar champion Temir-murza at the opening of the Battle of Kulikovo , where they killed each other.
1413 Catherine of Bologna an Italian cloistered nun, artist and saint.
1442 John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford one of the principal Lancastrian commanders during the English Wars of the Roses.
1474 Ludovico Ariosto an Italian poet. He is best known as the author of the romance epic Orlando Furioso. The poem, a continuation of Matteo Maria Boiardo's Orlando Innamorato, describes the adventures of Charlemagne, Orlando, and the Franks as they battle against the Saracens with diversions into many sideplots. Ariosto composed the poem in the ottava rima rhyme scheme and introduced narrative commentary throughout the work
1515 Alfonso Salmeron a Spanish biblical scholar, Catholic priest, and one of the first Jesuits.
1588 Marin Mersenne a French theologian, philosopher, mathematician and music theorist, often referred to as the "father of acoustics". Mersenne was "the center of the world of science and mathematics during the first half of the 1600s."
1591 Marie Angélique Arnauld Abbess of the Abbey of Port-Royal, which under her abbacy became a center of Jansenism.
1605 Cornelis Jan Witsen Witsen was a counsellor and mayor of the city of Amsterdam. He was the father of Nicolaes Witsen and the son of Jan Witsz and Grietje Claes
1611 Johann Friedrich Gronovius a German classical scholar and critic.
1621 Louis Grand Condé a French general and the most famous representative of the Condé branch of the House of Bourbon. Prior to his father's death in 1646, he was styled the Duc d'Enghien. For his military prowess he was renowned as le Grand Condé
1633 Ferdinand IV King of the Romans born in Vienna, the eldest son of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, and his first wife, María Ana of Spain. He was made King of Bohemia in 1646 and King of Hungary in 1647, the latter coronation taking place on June 16 in Pressburg. He was elected King of the Romans, that is, heir to the Holy Roman Empire, on 31 May 1653, and crowned at Ratisbon on 18 June of the same year. He died of smallpox in Vienna, predeceasing his father and leaving his younger brother, Leopold, as heir apparent
1647 John Sheffield 1st Duke of Buckingham and Normanby an English poet and notable Tory politician of the late Stuart period, who served as Lord Privy Seal and Lord President of the Council.
1668 Giorgio Baglivi an Italian physician and scientist, was born in poor circumstances at Ragusa in Dalmatia, his real name being Armeno. His family was of Armenian decent. His family was removed to Lecce in Apulia, and Giorgio took the name of his adopted father, a wealthy physician named Pier Angelo Baglivi. He made important contributions to clinical education, based on his own medical practice, and in De Fibra Motrice advanced the theory that the solid parts of organs are more crucial to their good functioning than their fluids
1672 Nicolas de Grigny a French organist and composer. He died young and left behind a single collection of organ music, which together with the work of François Couperin, represents the pinnacle of French Baroque organ tradition
1698 Friederike Charlotte of Hesse-Darmstadt a princess of Hesse-Darmstadt and through her marriage a princess of Hesse-Kassel.
1698 François Francoeur a French composer and violinist.
1705 Joasaph of Belgorod an 18th-century holy hierarch, bishop of Belgorod from 1748 until his death.
1708 Antiochus Kantemir a Moldavian-born Russian Enlightenment man of letters and diplomat.
1711 Flavio Chigi (1711–1771) an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal. He was a member of the noble Chigi family, nephew of Fabio Chigi, Pope Alexander VII
1718 François-Thomas-Marie de Baculard d'Arnaud a French writer and dramatist.
1724 Nikita Akinfiyevich Demidov a Russian industrialist and arts patron.
1742 Ozias Humphry a leading English painter of portrait miniatures, later oils and pastels, of the 18th century. He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1791, and in 1792 he was appointed Portrait Painter in Crayons to the King
1749 Princess Marie Louise of Savoy a member of a cadet branch of the House of Savoy. She was married at the age of 17 to Louis Alexandre de Bourbon-Penthièvre, Prince de Lamballe, the heir to the greatest fortune in France. After her marriage, which lasted a year, she went to court and became the confidante of Queen Marie Antoinette. She was killed in the massacres of September 1792 during the French Revolution
1749 Yolande de Polastron the favourite of Marie Antoinette, whom she first met when she was presented at the Palace of Versailles in 1775, the year after Marie Antoinette became the Queen of France. She was considered one of the great beauties of pre-Revolutionary high society, but her extravagance and exclusivity earned her many enemies
1749 Dominique Joseph Garat a French writer and politician.
1750 Tanikaze Kajinosuke officially recognized as the fourth yokozuna, and the first to be awarded the title of yokozuna within his own lifetime. He achieved great fame and won 21 tournament championships. He was also the coach of Raiden Tameemon
1752 Carl Stenborg a Swedish opera singer, actor, composer and theatre director. He is considered the first great male opera singer in Sweden and one of the pioneers of the Royal Swedish Opera
1756 Anton Teyber an Austrian organist, Kapellmeister and composer.
1760 Domenico Pino an Italian soldier. He served as General of Division in Napoleon's Grande Armée
1767 August Wilhelm Schlegel a German poet, translator, critic, and a foremost leader of German Romanticism. His translations of Shakespeare made the English dramatist's works into German classics
1774 Anne Catherine Emmerich a Roman Catholic Augustinian Canoness Regular of Windesheim, mystic, Marian visionary, ecstatic and stigmatist.
1775 John Leyden a Scottish orientalist.
1775 Vasily Orlov-Denisov a Cossack Russian general. He was the son of Vasily Petrovich Orlov, Ataman of the Don Cossacks, and grandson of the first Earl of the Cossacks, General of Cavalry, Fedor Petrovich Denisov. In honour of his grandfather he added his surname to his own, becoming Orlov-Denisov on 26 April 1801
1779 Mustafa IV the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1807 to 1808.
1783 August Friedrich Schweigger a German naturalist born in Erlangen. He was the younger brother of scientist Johann Salomo Christoph Schweigger
1783 N. F. S. Grundtvig Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig , most often referred to as simply F. Grundtvig or just Grundtvig, was a Danish pastor, author, poet, philosopher, historian, teacher and politician. He was one of the most influential people in Danish history, as his philosophy gave rise to a new form of nationalism in the last half of the 19th century. He married thrice, lastly in his seventy-sixth year
1788 William Collins (painter) an English landscape and genre painter. In the late 19th century his work was more popular and highly valued than even that of J M W Turner or John Constable
1788 Adrian Krzyżanowski a Polish mathematician and translator of German literature.
1790 Edward Law 1st Earl of Ellenborough a British Tory politician. He was four times President of the Board of Control and also served as Governor-General of India between 1842 and 1844
1796 Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente a Peruvian politician who also served in the Peruvian military. He was briefly President of Peru from June to September 1829
1799 Wacław Michał Zaleski a Polish poet, writer, researcher of folklore, theatre critic, political activist, and governor of Galicia.